ftp.cc.uoc.gr
rfc3954
This is a purely informative rendering of an RFC that includes verified errata. This rendering may not be used as a reference.

The following 'Verified' errata have been incorporated in this document: EID 2096, EID 2168, EID 2979
Network Working Group                                     B. Claise, Ed.
Request for Comments: 3954                                 Cisco Systems
Category: Informational                                     October 2004


            Cisco Systems NetFlow Services Export Version 9

Status of this Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
   not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
   memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).

IESG Note

   This RFC documents the NetFlow services export protocol Version 9 as
   it was when submitted to the IETF as a basis for further work in the
   IPFIX WG.

   This RFC itself is not a candidate for any level of Internet
   Standard.  The IETF disclaims any knowledge of the fitness of this
   RFC for any purpose, and in particular notes that it has not had
   complete IETF review for such things as security, congestion control,
   or inappropriate interaction with deployed protocols.  The RFC Editor
   has chosen to publish this document at its discretion.

Abstract

   This document specifies the data export format for version 9 of Cisco
   Systems' NetFlow services, for use by implementations on the network
   elements and/or matching collector programs.  The version 9 export
   format uses templates to provide access to observations of IP packet
   flows in a flexible and extensible manner.  A template defines a
   collection of fields, with corresponding descriptions of structure
   and semantics.

Table of Contents

   1.   Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2
   2.   Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
        2.1.  Terminology Summary Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.   NetFlow High-Level Picture on the Exporter. . . . . . . . . .  6
        3.1.  The NetFlow Process on the Exporter . . . . . . . . . .  6
        3.2.  Flow Expiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7

        3.3.  Transport Protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4.   Packet Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   5.   Export Packet Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
        5.1.  Header Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
        5.2.  Template FlowSet Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
        5.3.  Data FlowSet Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   6.   Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
        6.1.  Options Template FlowSet Format . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
        6.2.  Options Data Record Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   7.   Template Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   8.   Field Type Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   9.   The Collector Side. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   10.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
        10.1. Disclosure of Flow Information Data . . . . . . . . . . 26
        10.2. Forgery of Flow Records or Template Records . . . . . . 26
        10.3. Attacks on the NetFlow Collector. . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   11.  Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
        11.1. Packet Header Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
        11.2. Template FlowSet Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
        11.3. Data FlowSet Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
        11.4. Options Template FlowSet Example. . . . . . . . . . . . 30
        11.5. Data FlowSet with Options Data Records Example. . . . . 30
   12.  References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
        12.1. Normative References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
        12.2. Informative References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   13.  Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   14.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   15.  Authors' Addresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
   16.  Full Copyright Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

1.  Introduction

   Cisco Systems' NetFlow services provide network administrators with
   access to IP flow information from their data networks.  Network
   elements (routers and switches) gather flow data and export it to
   collectors.  The collected data provides fine-grained metering for
   highly flexible and detailed resource usage accounting.

   A flow is defined as a unidirectional sequence of packets with some
   common properties that pass through a network device.  These
   collected flows are exported to an external device, the NetFlow
   collector.  Network flows are highly granular; for example, flow
   records include details such as IP addresses, packet and byte counts,
   timestamps, Type of Service (ToS), application ports, input and
   output interfaces, etc.

   Exported NetFlow data is used for a variety of purposes, including
   enterprise accounting and departmental chargebacks, ISP billing, data

   warehousing, network monitoring, capacity planning, application
   monitoring and profiling, user monitoring and profiling, security
   analysis, and data mining for marketing purposes.

   This document specifies NetFlow version 9.  It describes the
   implementation specifications both from network element and NetFlow
   collector points of view.  These specifications should help the
   deployment of NetFlow version 9 across different platforms and
   different vendors by limiting the interoperability risks.  The
   NetFlow export format version 9 uses templates to provide access to
   observations of IP packet flows in a flexible and extensible manner.

   A template defines a collection of fields, with corresponding
   descriptions of structure and semantics.

   The template-based approach provides the following advantages:

      -  New fields can be added to NetFlow flow records without
         changing the structure of the export record format.  With
         previous NetFlow versions, adding a new field in the flow
         record implied a new version of the export protocol format and
         a new version of the NetFlow collector that supported the
         parsing of the new export protocol format.

      -  Templates that are sent to the NetFlow collector contain the
         structural information about the exported flow record fields;
         therefore, if the NetFlow collector does not understand the
         semantics of new fields, it can still interpret the flow
         record.

      -  Because the template mechanism is flexible, it allows the
         export of only the required fields from the flows to the
         NetFlow collector.  This helps to reduce the exported flow data
         volume and provides possible memory savings for the exporter
         and NetFlow collector.  Sending only the required information
         can also reduce network load.

   The IETF IPFIX Working Group (IP Flow Information eXport) is
   developing a new protocol, based on the version 9 of Cisco Systems'
   NetFlow services.  Some enhancements in different domains (congestion
   aware transport protocol, built-in security, etc... ) have been
   incorporated in this new IPFIX protocol.  Refer to the IPFIX Working
   Group documents for more details.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119
   [RFC2119].

2.  Terminology

   Various terms used in this document are described in this section.
   Note that the terminology summary table in Section 2.1 gives a quick
   overview of the relationships between some of the different terms
   defined.

   Observation Point
   An Observation Point is a location in the network where IP packets
   can be observed; for example, one or a set of interfaces on a network
   device like a router.  Every Observation Point is associated with an
   Observation Domain.

   Observation Domain
   The set of Observation Points that is the largest aggregatable set of
   flow information at the network device with NetFlow services enabled
   is termed an Observation Domain.  For example, a router line card
   composed of several interfaces with each interface being an
   Observation Point.

   IP Flow or Flow
   An IP Flow, also called a Flow, is defined as a set of IP packets
   passing an Observation Point in the network during a certain time
   interval.  All packets that belong to a particular Flow have a set of
   common properties derived from the data contained in the packet and
   from the packet treatment at the Observation Point.

   Flow Record
   A Flow Record provides information about an IP Flow observed at an
   Observation Point.  In this document, the Flow Data Records are also
   referred to as NetFlow services data and NetFlow data.

   Exporter
   A device (for example, a router) with the NetFlow services enabled,
   the Exporter monitors packets entering an Observation Point and
   creates Flows from these packets.  The information from these Flows
   is exported in the form of Flow Records to the NetFlow Collector.

   NetFlow Collector
   The NetFlow Collector receives Flow Records from one or more
   Exporters.  It processes the received Export Packet(s); that is, it
   parses and stores the Flow Record information.  Flow Records can be
   optionally aggregated before being stored on the hard disk.  The
   NetFlow Collector is also referred to as the Collector in this
   document.

   Export Packet
   An Export Packet is a packet originating at the Exporter that carries
   the Flow Records of this Exporter and whose destination is the
   NetFlow Collector.

   Packet Header
   The Packet Header is the first part of an Export Packet.  The Packet
   Header provides basic information about the packet such as the
   NetFlow version, number of records contained within the packet, and
   sequence numbering.

   Template Record
   A Template Record defines the structure and interpretation of fields
   in a Flow Data Record.

   Flow Data Record
   A Flow Data Record is a data record that contains values of the Flow
   parameters corresponding to a Template Record.

   Options Template Record
   An Options Template Record defines the structure and interpretation
   of fields in an Options Data Record, including defining the scope
   within which the Options Data Record is relevant.

   Options Data Record
   The data record that contains values and scope information of the
   Flow measurement parameters, corresponding to an Options Template
   Record.

   FlowSet
   FlowSet is a generic term for a collection of Flow Records that have
   a similar structure.  In an Export Packet, one or more FlowSets
   follow the Packet Header.  There are three different types of
   FlowSets: Template FlowSet, Options Template FlowSet, and Data
   FlowSet.

   Template FlowSet
   A Template FlowSet is one or more Template Records that have been
   grouped together in an Export Packet.

   Options Template FlowSet
   An Options Template FlowSet is one or more Options Template Records
   that have been grouped together in an Export Packet.

   Data FlowSet
   A Data FlowSet is one or more records, of the same type, that are
   grouped together in an Export Packet.  Each record is either a Flow
   Data Record or an Options Data Record previously defined by a
   Template Record or an Options Template Record.

2.1.  Terminology Summary Table

   +------------------+---------------------------------------------+
   |                  |                    Contents                 |
   |                  +--------------------+------------------------+
   |     FlowSet      | Template  Record   |    Data Record         |
   +------------------+--------------------+------------------------+
   |                  |                    |  Flow Data Record(s)   |
   | Data FlowSet     |          /         |          or            |
   |                  |                    | Options Data Record(s) |
   +------------------+--------------------+------------------------+
   | Template FlowSet | Template Record(s) |           /            |
   +------------------+--------------------+------------------------+
   | Options Template | Options Template   |           /            |
   | FlowSet          | Record(s)          |                        |
   +------------------+--------------------+------------------------+

   A Data FlowSet is composed of an Options Data Record(s) or Flow Data
   Record(s).  No Template Record is included. A Template Record defines
   the Flow Data Record, and an Options Template Record defines the
   Options Data Record.

   A Template FlowSet is composed of Template Record(s).  No Flow or
   Options Data Record is included.

   An Options Template FlowSet is composed of Options Template
   Record(s).  No Flow or Options Data Record is included.

3.  NetFlow High-Level Picture on the Exporter

3.1.  The NetFlow Process on the Exporter

   The NetFlow process on the Exporter is responsible for the creation
   of Flows from the observed IP packets.  The details of this process
   are beyond the scope of this document.

3.2.  Flow Expiration

   A Flow is considered to be inactive if no packets belonging to the
   Flow have been observed at the Observation Point for a given timeout.
   If any packet is seen within the timeout, the flow is considered an
   active flow. A Flow can be exported under the following conditions:

      1. If the Exporter can detect the end of a Flow.  For example, if
         the FIN or RST bit is detected in a TCP [RFC793] connection,
         the Flow Record is exported.

      2. If the Flow has been inactive for a certain period of time.
         This inactivity timeout SHOULD be configurable at the Exporter,
         with a minimum value of 0 for an immediate expiration.

      3. For long-lasting Flows, the Exporter SHOULD export the Flow
         Records on a regular basis.  This timeout SHOULD be
         configurable at the Exporter.

      4. If the Exporter experiences internal constraints, a Flow MAY be
         forced to expire prematurely; for example, counters wrapping or
         low memory.

3.3.  Transport Protocol

   To achieve efficiency in terms of processing at the Exporter while
   handling high volumes of Export Packets, the NetFlow Export Packets
   are encapsulated into UDP [RFC768] datagrams for export to the
   NetFlow Collector.  However, NetFlow version 9 has been designed to
   be transport protocol independent.  Hence, it can also operate over
   congestion-aware protocols such as SCTP [RFC2960].

   Note that the Exporter can export to multiple Collectors, using
   independent transport protocols.

   UDP [RFC768] is a non congestion-aware protocol, so when deploying
   NetFlow version 9 in a congestion-sensitive environment, make the
   connection between Exporter and NetFlow Collector through a dedicated
   link.  This ensures that any burstiness in the NetFlow traffic
   affects only this dedicated link.  When the NetFlow Collector can not
   be placed within a one-hop distance from the Exporter or when the
   export path from the Exporter to the NetFlow Collector can not be
   exclusively used for the NetFlow Export Packets, the export path
   should be designed so that it can always sustain the maximum
   burstiness of NetFlow traffic from the Exporter.  Note that the
   congestion can occur on the Exporter in case the export path speed is
   too low.

4.  Packet Layout

   An Export Packet consists of a Packet Header followed by one or more
   FlowSets.  The FlowSets can be any of the possible three types:
   Template, Data, or Options Template.

     +--------+-------------------------------------------+
     |        | +----------+ +---------+ +----------+     |
     | Packet | | Template | | Data    | | Options  |     |
     | Header | | FlowSet  | | FlowSet | | Template | ... |
     |        | |          | |         | | FlowSet  |     |
     |        | +----------+ +---------+ +----------+     |
     +--------+-------------------------------------------+
                         Export Packet

   A FlowSet ID is used to distinguish the different types of FlowSets.
   FlowSet IDs lower than 256 are reserved for special FlowSets, such as
   the Template FlowSet (ID 0) and the Options Template FlowSet (ID 1).
   The Data FlowSets have a FlowSet ID greater than 255.

   The format of the Template, Data, and Options Template FlowSets will
   be discussed later in this document.  The Exporter MUST code all
   binary integers of the Packet Header and the different FlowSets in
   network byte order (also known as the big-endian byte ordering).

   Following are some examples of export packets:

   1. An Export Packet consisting of interleaved Template, Data, and
      Options Template FlowSets.  Example: a newly created Template is
      exported as soon as possible.  So if there is already an Export
      Packet with a Data FlowSet that is being prepared for export, the
      Template and Option FlowSets are also interleaved with this
      information, subject to availability of space.

   Export Packet:
   +--------+--------------------------------------------------------+
   |        | +----------+ +---------+     +-----------+ +---------+ |
   | Packet | | Template | | Data    |     | Options   | | Data    | |
   | Header | | FlowSet  | | FlowSet | ... | Template  | | FlowSet | |
   |        | |          | |         |     | FlowSet   | |         | |
   |        | +----------+ +---------+     +-----------+ +---------+ |
   +--------+--------------------------------------------------------+

   2. An Export Packet consisting entirely of Data FlowSets.  Example:
      after the appropriate Template Records have been defined and
      transmitted to the NetFlow Collector device, the majority of
      Export Packets consists solely of Data FlowSets.

   Export Packet:
   +--------+----------------------------------------------+
   |        | +---------+     +---------+      +---------+ |
   | Packet | | Data    | ... | Data    | ...  | Data    | |
   | Header | | FlowSet | ... | FlowSet | ...  | FlowSet | |
   |        | +---------+     +---------+      +---------+ |
   +--------+----------------------------------------------+

   3. An Export Packet consisting entirely of Template and Options
      Template FlowSets.  Example: the Exporter MAY transmit a packet
      containing Template and Options Template FlowSets periodically to
      help ensure that the NetFlow Collector has the correct Template
      Records and Options Template Records when the corresponding Flow
      Data records are received.

   Export Packet:
   +--------+-------------------------------------------------+
   |        | +----------+     +----------+      +----------+ |
   | Packet | | Template |     | Template |      | Options  | |
   | Header | | FlowSet  | ... | FlowSet  | ...  | Template | |
   |        | |          |     |          |      | FlowSet  | |
   |        | +----------+     +----------+      +----------+ |
   +--------+-------------------------------------------------+

5.  Export Packet Format

5.1.  Header Format

   The Packet Header format is specified as:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       Version Number          |            Count              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           sysUpTime                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           UNIX Secs                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       Sequence Number                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Source ID                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Packet Header Field Descriptions

   Version
         Version of Flow Record format exported in this packet.  The
         value of this field is 9 for the current version.

   Count
         The total number of records in the Export Packet, which is the
         sum of Options FlowSet records, Template FlowSet records, and
         Data FlowSet records.

   sysUpTime
         Time in milliseconds since this device was first booted.

   UNIX Secs
         Time in seconds since 0000 UTC 1970, at which the Export Packet
         leaves the Exporter.

   Sequence Number
         Incremental sequence counter of all Export Packets sent from
         the current Observation Domain by the Exporter.  This value
         MUST be cumulative, and SHOULD be used by the Collector to
         identify whether any Export Packets have been missed.

      Source ID 
         A 32-bit value that identifies the Exporter Observation Domain.
         NetFlow Collectors SHOULD use the combination of the source IP
         address, source port, and the Source ID field to separate different export
         streams originating from the same Exporter.
EID 2979 (Verified) is as follows:

Section: 5.1

Original Text:

   Source ID
         A 32-bit value that identifies the Exporter Observation Domain.
         NetFlow Collectors SHOULD use the combination of the source IP
         address and the Source ID field to separate different export
         streams originating from the same Exporter.

Corrected Text:

   Source ID
         A 32-bit value that identifies the Exporter Observation Domain.
         NetFlow Collectors SHOULD use the combination of the source IP
         address, source port, and the Source ID field to separate different export
         streams originating from the same Exporter.
Notes:
Addition of "source port" to separate multiple export streams.

This is already addressed in RFC5101 (IPFIX) as so:

Collecting Processes SHOULD use the Transport Session and the
Observation Domain ID field to separate different export streams

NB transport session = address + ports.
5.2. Template FlowSet Format One of the essential elements in the NetFlow format is the Template FlowSet. Templates greatly enhance the flexibility of the Flow Record format because they allow the NetFlow Collector to process Flow Records without necessarily knowing the interpretation of all the data in the Flow Record. The format of the Template FlowSet is as follows: 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | FlowSet ID = 0 | Length | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Template ID 256 | Field Count | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Field Type 1 | Field Length 1 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Field Type 2 | Field Length 2 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | ... | ... | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Field Type N | Field Length N | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Template ID 257 | Field Count | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Field Type 1 | Field Length 1 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Field Type 2 | Field Length 2 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | ... | ... | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Field Type M | Field Length M | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | ... | ... | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Template ID K | Field Count | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | ... | ... | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Template FlowSet Field Descriptions FlowSet ID FlowSet ID value of 0 is reserved for the Template FlowSet. Length Total length of this FlowSet. Because an individual Template FlowSet MAY contain multiple Template Records, the Length value MUST be used to determine the position of the next FlowSet record, which could be any type of FlowSet. Length is the sum of the lengths of the FlowSet ID, the Length itself, and all Template Records within this FlowSet. Template ID Each of the newly generated Template Records is given a unique Template ID. This uniqueness is local to the Observation Domain that generated the Template ID. Template IDs 0-255 are reserved for Template FlowSets, Options FlowSets, and other reserved FlowSets yet to be created. Template IDs of Data FlowSets are numbered from 256 to 65535. Field Count Number of fields in this Template Record. Because a Template FlowSet usually contains multiple Template Records, this field allows the Collector to determine the end of the current Template Record and the start of the next. Field Type A numeric value that represents the type of the field. Refer to the "Field Type Definitions" section. Field Length The length of the corresponding Field Type, in bytes. Refer to the "Field Type Definitions" section. 5.3. Data FlowSet Format The format of the Data FlowSet is as follows: 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | FlowSet ID = Template ID | Length | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Record 1 - Field Value 1 | Record 1 - Field Value 2 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Record 1 - Field Value 3 | ... | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Record 2 - Field Value 1 | Record 2 - Field Value 2 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Record 2 - Field Value 3 | ... | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Record 3 - Field Value 1 | ... | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | ... | Padding | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Data FlowSet Field Descriptions FlowSet ID = Template ID Each Data FlowSet is associated with a FlowSet ID. The FlowSet ID maps to a (previously generated) Template ID. The Collector MUST use the FlowSet ID to find the corresponding Template Record and decode the Flow Records from the FlowSet. Length The length of this FlowSet. Length is the sum of the lengths of the FlowSet ID, Length itself, all Flow Records within this FlowSet, and the padding bytes, if any. Record N - Field Value M The remainder of the Data FlowSet is a collection of Flow Data Record(s), each containing a set of field values. The Type and Length of the fields have been previously defined in the Template Record referenced by the FlowSet ID or Template ID. Padding The Exporter SHOULD insert some padding bytes so that the subsequent FlowSet starts at a 4-byte aligned boundary. It is important to note that the Length field includes the padding bytes. The padding length MUST be shorter than any allowable record in the Set. Padding SHOULD be using zeros.
EID 2096 (Verified) is as follows:

Section: 5.3 and 6.2.

Original Text:

   Padding
         The Exporter SHOULD insert some padding bytes so that the
         subsequent FlowSet starts at a 4-byte aligned boundary.  It is
         important to note that the Length field includes the padding
         bytes.  Padding SHOULD be using zeros.

Corrected Text:

   Padding
         The Exporter SHOULD insert some padding bytes so that the
         subsequent FlowSet starts at a 4-byte aligned boundary.  It is
         important to note that the Length field includes the padding
         bytes.  The padding length MUST be shorter than any allowable
         record in the Set.  Padding SHOULD be using zeros.
Notes:
Addition of "The padding length MUST be shorter than any allowable record in the Set."

With small field sizes, such that the record size <= 3, it's not possible to distinguish padding from further data records (s 5.3) or options data records (s 6.2).

eg, with a record length of 3, three records will consume 9 octets. Three octets of padding will be added to this, giving a total length of 12 octets. The 12 octets now look like *four* records. In this case, padding is NOT appropriate.

NB1 the same paragraph in section 6.1 is NOT affected, because the fixed size of the other fields dictates that the only possibility is padding of 2 octets.

NB2 this situation is anticipated in IPFIX (RFC 5101), from which the additional text is taken.
Interpretation of the Data FlowSet format can be done only if the Template FlowSet corresponding to the Template ID is available at the Collector. 6. Options 6.1. Options Template FlowSet Format The Options Template Record (and its corresponding Options Data Record) is used to supply information about the NetFlow process configuration or NetFlow process specific data, rather than supplying information about IP Flows. For example, the Options Template FlowSet can report the sample rate of a specific interface, if sampling is supported, along with the sampling method used. The format of the Options Template FlowSet follows. 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | FlowSet ID = 1 | Length | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Template ID | Option Scope Length | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Option Length | Scope 1 Field Type | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Scope 1 Field Length | ... | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Scope N Field Length | Option 1 Field Type | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Option 1 Field Length | ... | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Option M Field Length | Padding | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Options Template FlowSet Field Definitions FlowSet ID = 1 A FlowSet ID value of 1 is reserved for the Options Template. Length Total length of this FlowSet. Each Options Template FlowSet MAY contain multiple Options Template Records. Thus, the Length value MUST be used to determine the position of the next FlowSet record, which could be either a Template FlowSet or Data FlowSet. Length is the sum of the lengths of the FlowSet ID, the Length itself, and all Options Template Records within this FlowSet Template ID. Template ID Template ID of this Options Template. This value is greater than 255. Option Scope Length The length in bytes of any Scope field definition contained in the Options Template Record (The use of "Scope" is described below). Option Length The length (in bytes) of any options field definitions contained in this Options Template Record. Scope 1 Field Type The relevant portion of the Exporter/NetFlow process to which the Options Template Record refers. Currently defined values are: 1 System 2 Interface 3 Line Card 4 Cache 5 Template For example, the NetFlow process can be implemented on a per- interface basis, so if the Options Template Record were reporting on how the NetFlow process is configured, the Scope for the report would be 2 (interface). The associated interface ID would then be carried in the associated Options Data FlowSet. The Scope can be limited further by listing multiple scopes that all must match at the same time. Note that the Scope fields always precede the Option fields. Scope 1 Field Length The length (in bytes) of the Scope field, as it would appear in an Options Data Record. Option 1 Field Type A numeric value that represents the type of field that would appear in the Options Template Record. Refer to the Field Type Definitions section. Option 1 Field Length The length (in bytes) of the Option field. Padding The Exporter SHOULD insert some padding bytes so that the subsequent FlowSet starts at a 4-byte aligned boundary. It is important to note that the Length field includes the padding bytes. Padding SHOULD be using zeros. 6.2. Options Data Record Format The Options Data Records are sent in Data FlowSets, on a regular basis, but not with every Flow Data Record. How frequently these Options Data Records are exported is configurable. See the "Templates Management" section for more details. The format of the Data FlowSet containing Options Data Records follows. 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | FlowSet ID = Template ID | Length | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Record 1 - Scope 1 Value |Record 1 - Option Field 1 Value| +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |Record 1 - Option Field 2 Value| ... | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Record 2 - Scope 1 Value |Record 2 - Option Field 1 Value| +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |Record 2 - Option Field 2 Value| ... | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Record 3 - Scope 1 Value |Record 3 - Option Field 1 Value| +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |Record 3 - Option Field 2 Value| ... | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | ... | Padding | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Options Data Records of the Data FlowSet Field Descriptions FlowSet ID = Template ID A FlowSet ID precedes each group of Options Data Records within a Data FlowSet. The FlowSet ID maps to a previously generated Template ID corresponding to this Options Template Record. The Collector MUST use the FlowSet ID to map the appropriate type and length to any field values that follow. Length The length of this FlowSet. Length is the sum of the lengths of the FlowSet ID, Length itself, all the Options Data Records within this FlowSet, and the padding bytes, if any. Record N - Option Field M Value The remainder of the Data FlowSet is a collection of Flow Records, each containing a set of scope and field values. The type and length of the fields were previously defined in the Options Template Record referenced by the FlowSet ID or Template ID. Padding The Exporter SHOULD insert some padding bytes so that the subsequent FlowSet starts at a 4-byte aligned boundary. It is important to note that the Length field includes the padding bytes. Padding SHOULD be using zeros. The Data FlowSet format can be interpreted only if the Options Template FlowSet corresponding to the Template ID is available at the Collector. 7. Template Management Flow Data records that correspond to a Template Record MAY appear in the same and/or subsequent Export Packets. The Template Record is not necessarily carried in every Export Packet. As such, the NetFlow Collector MUST store the Template Record to interpret the corresponding Flow Data Records that are received in subsequent data packets. A NetFlow Collector that receives Export Packets from several Observation Domains from the same Exporter MUST be aware that the uniqueness of the Template ID is not guaranteed across Observation Domains. The Template IDs must remain constant for the life of the NetFlow process on the Exporter. If the Exporter or the NetFlow process restarts for any reason, all information about Templates will be lost and new Template IDs will be created. Template IDs are thus not guaranteed to be consistent across an Exporter or NetFlow process restart. A newly created Template record is assigned an unused Template ID from the Exporter. If the template configuration is changed, the current Template ID is abandoned and SHOULD NOT be reused until the NetFlow process or Exporter restarts. If a Collector should receive a new definition for an already existing Template ID, it MUST discard the previous template definition and use the new one. If a configured Template Record on the Exporter is deleted, and re- configured with exactly the same parameters, the same Template ID COULD be reused. The Exporter sends the Template FlowSet and Options Template FlowSet under the following conditions: 1. After a NetFlow process restarts, the Exporter MUST NOT send any Data FlowSet without sending the corresponding Template FlowSet and the required Options Template FlowSet in a previous packet or including it in the same Export Packet. It MAY transmit the Template FlowSet and Options Template FlowSet, without any Data FlowSets, in advance to help ensure that the Collector will have the correct Template Record before receiving the first Flow or Options Data Record. 2. In the event of configuration changes, the Exporter SHOULD send the new template definitions at an accelerated rate. In such a case, it MAY transmit the changed Template Record(s) and Options Template Record(s), without any data, in advance to help ensure that the Collector will have the correct template information before receiving the first data. 3. On a regular basis, the Exporter MUST send all the Template Records and Options Template Records to refresh the Collector. Template IDs have a limited lifetime at the Collector and MUST be periodically refreshed. Two approaches are taken to make sure that Templates get refreshed at the Collector: * Every N number of Export Packets. * On a time basis, so every N number of minutes. Both options MUST be configurable by the user on the Exporter. When one of these expiry conditions is met, the Exporter MUST send the Template FlowSet and Options Template. 4. In the event of a clock configuration change on the Exporter, the Exporter SHOULD send the template definitions at an accelerated rate. 8. Field Type Definitions The following table describes all the field type definitions that an Exporter MAY support. The fields are a selection of Packet Header fields, lookup results (for example, the autonomous system numbers or the subnet masks), and properties of the packet such as length. Field Type Value Length Description (bytes) Incoming counter with length N x 8 bits for the IN_BYTES 1 N number of bytes associated with an IP Flow. By default N is 4 Incoming counter with length N x 8 bits for the IN_PKTS 2 N number of packets associated with an IP Flow. By default N is 4 FLOWS 3 N Number of Flows that were aggregated; by default N is 4 PROTOCOL 4 1 IP protocol byte Type of service byte TOS 5 1 setting when entering the incoming interface TCP flags; cumulative of TCP_FLAGS 6 1 all the TCP flags seen in this Flow TCP/UDP source port number L4_SRC_PORT 7 2 (for example, FTP, Telnet, or equivalent) IPV4_SRC_ADDR 8 4 IPv4 source address The number of contiguous bits in the source subnet SRC_MASK 9 1 mask (i.e., the mask in slash notation) Input interface index. INPUT_SNMP 10 N By default N is 2, but higher values can be used TCP/UDP destination port L4_DST_PORT 11 2 number (for example, FTP, Telnet, or equivalent) IPV4_DST_ADDR 12 4 IPv4 destination address The number of contiguous bits in the destination DST_MASK 13 1 subnet mask (i.e., the mask in slash notation) Output interface index. OUTPUT_SNMP 14 N By default N is 2, but higher values can be used IPV4_NEXT_HOP 15 4 IPv4 address of the next- hop router Source BGP autonomous SRC_AS 16 N system number where N could be 2 or 4. By default N is 2 Destination BGP autonomous DST_AS 17 N system number where N could be 2 or 4. By default N is 2 BGP_IPV4_NEXT_HOP 18 4 Next-hop router's IP address in the BGP domain IP multicast outgoing packet counter with length MUL_DST_PKTS 19 N N x 8 bits for packets associated with the IP Flow. By default N is 4 IP multicast outgoing Octet (byte) counter with length N x 8 bits for the MUL_DST_BYTES 20 N number of bytes associated with the IP Flow. By default N is 4 sysUptime in msec at which LAST_SWITCHED 21 4 the last packet of this Flow was switched sysUptime in msec at which FIRST_SWITCHED 22 4 the first packet of this Flow was switched Outgoing counter with length N x 8 bits for the OUT_BYTES 23 N number of bytes associated with an IP Flow. By default N is 4 Outgoing counter with length N x 8 bits for the OUT_PKTS 24 N number of packets associated with an IP Flow. By default N is 4 IPV6_SRC_ADDR 27 16 IPv6 source address IPV6_DST_ADDR 28 16 IPv6 destination address IPV6_SRC_MASK 29 1 Length of the IPv6 source mask in contiguous bits Length of the IPv6 IPV6_DST_MASK 30 1 destination mask in contiguous bits IPV6_FLOW_LABEL 31 3 IPv6 flow label as per RFC 2460 definition Internet Control Message ICMP_TYPE 32 2 Protocol (ICMP) packet type; reported as ICMP Type * 256 + ICMP code MUL_IGMP_TYPE 33 1 Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) packet type When using sampled NetFlow, the rate at which packets SAMPLING_INTERVAL 34 4 are sampled; for example, a value of 100 indicates that one of every hundred packets is sampled For sampled NetFlow platform-wide: SAMPLING_ALGORITHM 35 1 0x01 deterministic sampling 0x02 random sampling Use in connection with SAMPLING_INTERVAL Timeout value (in seconds) FLOW_ACTIVE_TIMEOUT 36 2 for active flow entries in the NetFlow cache Timeout value (in seconds) FLOW_INACTIVE_TIMEOUT 37 2 for inactive Flow entries in the NetFlow cache Type of Flow switching ENGINE_TYPE 38 1 engine (route processor, linecard, etc...) ENGINE_ID 39 1 ID number of the Flow switching engine Counter with length N x 8 bits for the number TOTAL_BYTES_EXP 40 N of bytes exported by the Observation Domain. By default N is 4 Counter with length N x 8 bits for the number TOTAL_PKTS_EXP 41 N of packets exported by the Observation Domain. By default N is 4 Counter with length N x 8 bits for the number TOTAL_FLOWS_EXP 42 N of Flows exported by the Observation Domain. By default N is 4 MPLS_TOP_LABEL_TYPE 46 1 MPLS Top Label Type: 0x00 UNKNOWN 0x01 TE-MIDPT 0x02 ATOM 0x03 VPN 0x04 BGP 0x05 LDP Forwarding Equivalent Class MPLS_TOP_LABEL_IP_ADDR 47 4 corresponding to the MPLS Top Label FLOW_SAMPLER_ID 48 N Identifier shown in "show flow-sampler". By default N is 4.
EID 2168 (Verified) is as follows:

Section: 8

Original Text:

   FLOW_SAMPLER_ID              48   1     Identifier shown
                                           in "show flow-sampler"

Corrected Text:

   FLOW_SAMPLER_ID              48   N     Identifier shown
                                           in "show flow-sampler".
                                           By default N is 4.
Notes:
Change sampler ID field size to N, defaulting to 4. NB smaller sizes may be used. The actual size may be determined from the corresponding NFv9 template.
The type of algorithm used for sampling data: FLOW_SAMPLER_MODE 49 1 0x02 random sampling Use in connection with FLOW_SAMPLER_MODE Packet interval at which to FLOW_SAMPLER_RANDOM_INTERVAL 50 4 sample. Use in connection with FLOW_SAMPLER_MODE Type of Service byte DST_TOS 55 1 setting when exiting outgoing interface SRC_MAC 56 6 Source MAC Address DST_MAC 57 6 Destination MAC Address Virtual LAN identifier SRC_VLAN 58 2 associated with ingress interface Virtual LAN identifier DST_VLAN 59 2 associated with egress interface Internet Protocol Version Set to 4 for IPv4, set to 6 IP_PROTOCOL_VERSION 60 1 for IPv6. If not present in the template, then version 4 is assumed Flow direction: DIRECTION 61 1 0 - ingress flow 1 - egress flow IPV6_NEXT_HOP 62 16 IPv6 address of the next-hop router BGP_IPV6_NEXT_HOP 63 16 Next-hop router in the BGP domain Bit-encoded field IPV6_OPTION_HEADERS 64 4 identifying IPv6 option headers found in the flow MPLS_LABEL_1 70 3 MPLS label at position 1 in the stack MPLS_LABEL_2 71 3 MPLS label at position 2 in the stack MPLS_LABEL_3 72 3 MPLS label at position 3 in the stack MPLS_LABEL_4 73 3 MPLS label at position 4 in the stack MPLS_LABEL_5 74 3 MPLS label at position 5 in the stack MPLS_LABEL_6 75 3 MPLS label at position 6 in the stack MPLS_LABEL_7 76 3 MPLS label at position 7 in the stack MPLS_LABEL_8 77 3 MPLS label at position 8 in the stack MPLS_LABEL_9 78 3 MPLS label at position 9 in the stack MPLS_LABEL_10 79 3 MPLS label at position 10 in the stack The value field is a numeric identifier for the field type. The following value fields are reserved for proprietary field types: 25, 26, 43 to 45, 51 to 54, and 65 to 69. When extensibility is required, the new field types will be added to the list. The new field types have to be updated on the Exporter and Collector but the NetFlow export format would remain unchanged. Refer to the latest documentation at http://www.cisco.com for the newly updated list. In some cases the size of a field type is fixed by definition, for example PROTOCOL, or IPV4_SRC_ADDR. However in other cases they are defined as a variant type. This improves the memory efficiency in the collector and reduces the network bandwidth requirement between the Exporter and the Collector. As an example, in the case IN_BYTES, on an access router it might be sufficient to use a 32 bit counter (N = 4), whilst on a core router a 64 bit counter (N = 8) would be required. All counters and counter-like objects are unsigned integers of size N * 8 bits. 9. The Collector Side The Collector receives Template Records from the Exporter, normally before receiving Flow Data Records (or Options Data Records). The Flow Data Records (or Options Data Records) can then be decoded and stored locally on the devices. If the Template Records have not been received at the time Flow Data Records (or Options Data Records) are received, the Collector SHOULD store the Flow Data Records (or Options Data Records) and decode them after the Template Records are received. A Collector device MUST NOT assume that the Data FlowSet and the associated Template FlowSet (or Options Template FlowSet) are exported in the same Export Packet. The Collector MUST NOT assume that one and only one Template FlowSet is present in an Export Packet. The life of a template at the Collector is limited to a fixed refresh timeout. Templates not refreshed from the Exporter within the timeout are expired at the Collector. The Collector MUST NOT attempt to decode the Flow or Options Data Records with an expired Template. At any given time the Collector SHOULD maintain the following for all the current Template Records and Options Template Records: Exporter, Observation Domain, Template ID, Template Definition, Last Received. Note that the Observation Domain is identified by the Source ID field from the Export Packet. In the event of a clock configuration change on the Exporter, the Collector SHOULD discard all Template Records and Options Template Records associated with that Exporter, in order for Collector to learn the new set of fields: Exporter, Observation Domain, Template ID, Template Definition, Last Received. Template IDs are unique per Exporter and per Observation Domain. If the Collector receives a new Template Record (for example, in the case of an Exporter restart) it MUST immediately override the existing Template Record. Finally, note that the Collector MUST accept padding in the Data FlowSet and Options Template FlowSet, which means for the Flow Data Records, the Options Data Records and the Template Records. Refer to the terminology summary table in Section 2.1. 10. Security Considerations The NetFlow version 9 protocol was designed with the expectation that the Exporter and Collector would remain within a single private network. However the NetFlow version 9 protocol might be used to transport Flow Records over the public Internet which exposes the Flow Records to a number of security risks. For example an attacker might capture, modify or insert Export Packets. There is therefore a risk that IP Flow information might be captured or forged, or that attacks might be directed at the NetFlow Collector. The designers of NetFlow Version 9 did not impose any confidentiality, integrity or authentication requirements on the protocol because this reduced the efficiency of the implementation and it was believed at the time that the majority of deployments would confine the Flow Records to private networks, with the Collector(s) and Exporter(s) in close proximity. The IPFIX protocol (IP Flow Information eXport), which has chosen the NetFlow version 9 protocol as the base protocol, addresses the security considerations discussed in this section. See the security section of IPFIX requirement draft [RFC3917] for more information. 10.1. Disclosure of Flow Information Data Because the NetFlow Version 9 Export Packets are not encrypted, the observation of Flow Records can give an attacker information about the active flows in the network, communication endpoints and traffic patterns. This information can be used both to spy on user behavior and to plan and conceal future attacks. The information that an attacker could derive from the interception of Flow Records depends on the Flow definition. For example, a Flow Record containing the source and destination IP addresses might reveal privacy sensitive information regarding the end user's activities, whilst a Flow Record only containing the source and destination IP network would be less revealing. 10.2. Forgery of Flow Records or Template Records If Flow Records are used in accounting and/or security applications, there may be a strong incentive to forge exported Flow Records (for example to defraud the service provider, or to prevent the detection of an attack). This can be done either by altering the Flow Records on the path between the Observer and the Collector, or by injecting forged Flow Records that pretend to be originated by the Exporter. An attacker could forge Templates and/or Options Templates and thereby try to confuse the NetFlow Collector, rendering it unable to decode the Export Packets. 10.3. Attacks on the NetFlow Collector Denial of service attacks on the NetFlow Collector can consume so many resources from the machine that, the Collector is unable to capture or decode some NetFlow Export Packets. Such hazards are not explicitly addressed by the NetFlow Version 9 protocol, although the normal methods used to protect a server from a DoS attack will mitigate the problem. 11. Examples Let us consider the example of an Export Packet composed of a Template FlowSet, a Data FlowSet (which contains three Flow Data Records), an Options Template FlowSet, and a Data FlowSet (which contains two Options Data Records). Export Packet: +--------+---------------------------------------------. . . | | +--------------+ +-----------------------+ | Packet | | Template | | Data | | Header | | FlowSet | | FlowSet | . . . | | | (1 Template) | | (3 Flow Data Records) | | | +--------------+ +-----------------------+ +--------+---------------------------------------------. . . . . .+-------------------------------------------------+ +------------------+ +--------------------------+ | | Options | | Data | | . . .| Template FlowSet | | FlowSet | | | (1 Template) | | (2 Options Data Records) | | +------------------+ +--------------------------+ | . . .--------------------------------------------------+ 11.1. Packet Header Example The Packet Header is composed of: 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Version = 9 | Count = 7 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | sysUpTime | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | UNIX Secs | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Sequence Number | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Source ID | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 11.2. Template FlowSet Example We want to report the following Field Types: - The source IP address (IPv4), so the length is 4 - The destination IP address (IPv4), so the length is 4 - The next-hop IP address (IPv4), so the length is 4 - The number of bytes of the Flow - The number of packets of the Flow Therefore, the Template FlowSet is composed of the following: 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | FlowSet ID = 0 | Length = 28 bytes | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Template ID 256 | Field Count = 5 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | IP_SRC_ADDR = 8 | Field Length = 4 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | IP_DST_ADDR = 12 | Field Length = 4 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | IP_NEXT_HOP = 15 | Field Length = 4 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | IN_PKTS = 2 | Field Length = 4 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | IN_BYTES = 1 | Field Length = 4 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 11.3. Data FlowSet Example In this example, we report the following three Flow Records: Src IP addr. | Dst IP addr. | Next Hop addr. | Packet | Bytes | | | Number | Number --------------------------------------------------------------- 198.168.1.12 | 10.5.12.254 | 192.168.1.1 | 5009 | 5344385 192.168.1.27 | 10.5.12.23 | 192.168.1.1 | 748 | 388934 192.168.1.56 | 10.5.12.65 | 192.168.1.1 | 5 | 6534 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | FlowSet ID = 256 | Length = 64 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 198.168.1.12 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 10.5.12.254 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 192.168.1.1 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 5009 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 5344385 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 192.168.1.27 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 10.5.12.23 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 192.168.1.1 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 748 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 388934 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 192.168.1.56 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 10.5.12.65 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 192.168.1.1 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 5 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 6534 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Note that padding was not necessary in this example. 11.4. Options Template FlowSet Example Per line card (the Exporter is composed of two line cards), we want to report the following Field Types: - Total number of Export Packets - Total number of exported Flows The format of the Options Template FlowSet is as follows: 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | FlowSet ID = 1 | Length = 24 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Template ID 257 | Option Scope Length = 4 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Option Length = 8 | Scope 1 Field Type = 3 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Scope 1 Field Length = 2 | TOTAL_EXP_PKTS_SENT = 41 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Field Length = 2 | TOTAL_FLOWS_EXP = 42 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Field Length = 2 | Padding | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 11.5. Data FlowSet with Options Data Records Example In this example, we report the following two records: Line Card ID | Export Packet| Export Flow ------------------------------------------ Line Card 1 | 345 | 10201 Line Card 2 | 690 | 20402 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | FlowSet ID = 257 | Length = 16 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 1 | 345 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 10201 | 2 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | 690 | 20402 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 12. References 12.1. Normative References [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. 12.2. Informative References [RFC768] Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768, August 1980. [RFC793] Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7, RFC 793, September 1981. [RFC2960] Stewart, R., Xie, Q., Morneault, K., Sharp, C., Schwarzbauer, H., Taylor, T., Rytina, I., Kalla, M., Zhang, L., and V. Paxson, "Stream Control Transmission Protocol", RFC 2960, October 2000. [RFC3917] Quittek, J., Zseby, T., Claise, B., and S. Zander, "Requirements for IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)", RFC 3917, October 2004. 13. Authors This document was jointly written by Vamsidhar Valluri, Martin Djernaes, Ganesh Sadasivan, and Benoit Claise. 14. Acknowledgments I would like to thank Pritam Shah, Paul Kohler, Dmitri Bouianovski, and Stewart Bryant for their valuable technical feedback. 15. Authors' Addresses Benoit Claise (Editor) Cisco Systems De Kleetlaan 6a b1 1831 Diegem Belgium Phone: +32 2 704 5622 EMail: bclaise@cisco.com Ganesh Sadasivan Cisco Systems, Inc. 3750 Cisco Way San Jose, CA 95134 USA Phone: +1 408 527-0251 EMail: gsadasiv@cisco.com Vamsi Valluri Cisco Systems, Inc. 510 McCarthy Blvd. San Jose, CA 95035 USA Phone: +1 408 525-1835 EMail: vvalluri@cisco.com Martin Djernaes Cisco Systems, Inc. 510 McCarthy Blvd. San Jose, CA 95035 USA Phone: +1 408 853-1676 EMail: djernaes@cisco.com Full Copyright Statement Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and at www.rfc-editor.org, and except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights. 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