ftp.cc.uoc.gr
rfc8080
This is a purely informative rendering of an RFC that includes verified errata. This rendering may not be used as a reference.

The following 'Verified' errata have been incorporated in this document: EID 4935
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                           O. Sury
Request for Comments: 8080                                        CZ.NIC
Category: Standards Track                                     R. Edmonds
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                   Fastly
                                                           February 2017


      Edwards-Curve Digital Security Algorithm (EdDSA) for DNSSEC

Abstract

   This document describes how to specify Edwards-curve Digital Security
   Algorithm (EdDSA) keys and signatures in DNS Security (DNSSEC).  It
   uses EdDSA with the choice of two curves: Ed25519 and Ed448.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8080.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   3.  DNSKEY Resource Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   4.  RRSIG Resource Records  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   5.  Algorithm Number for DS, DNSKEY, and RRSIG Resource Records .   3
   6.  Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     6.1.  Ed25519 Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     6.2.  Ed448 Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7

1.  Introduction

   DNSSEC, which is broadly defined in [RFC4033], [RFC4034], and
   [RFC4035], uses cryptographic keys and digital signatures to provide
   authentication of DNS data.  Currently, the most popular signature
   algorithm in use is RSA.  GOST [RFC5933] and NIST-specified elliptic
   curve cryptography [RFC6605] are also standardized.

   [RFC8032] describes the elliptic curve signature system Edwards-curve
   Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA) and recommends two curves,
   Ed25519 and Ed448.

   This document defines the use of DNSSEC's DS, DNSKEY, and RRSIG
   resource records (RRs) with a new signing algorithm, EdDSA, using a
   choice of two curves: Ed25519 and Ed448.

2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  DNSKEY Resource Records

   An Ed25519 public key consists of a 32-octet value, which is encoded
   into the Public Key field of a DNSKEY resource record as a simple bit
   string.  The generation of a public key is defined in Section 5.1.5
   of [RFC8032].

   An Ed448 public key consists of a 57-octet value, which is encoded
   into the Public Key field of a DNSKEY resource record as a simple bit
   string.  The generation of a public key is defined in Section 5.2.5
   of [RFC8032].

4.  RRSIG Resource Records

   An Ed25519 signature consists of a 64-octet value, which is encoded
   into the Signature field of an RRSIG resource record as a simple bit
   string.  The Ed25519 signature algorithm and verification of the
   Ed25519 signature are described in Sections 5.1.6 and 5.1.7 of
   [RFC8032], respectively.

   An Ed448 signature consists of a 114-octet value, which is encoded
   into the Signature field of an RRSIG resource record as a simple bit
   string.  The Ed448 signature algorithm and verification of the Ed448
   signature are described in Sections 5.2.6 and 5.2.7 of [RFC8032],
   respectively.

5.  Algorithm Number for DS, DNSKEY, and RRSIG Resource Records

   The algorithm number associated with the use of Ed25519 in DS,
   DNSKEY, and RRSIG resource records is 15.  The algorithm number
   associated with the use of Ed448 in DS, DNSKEY, and RRSIG resource
   records is 16.  This registration is fully defined in the IANA
   Considerations section.

6.  Examples

EID 4935 (Verified) is as follows:

Section: 6

Original Text:

6.  Examples

6.1.  Ed25519 Examples

Private-key-format: v1.2
Algorithm: 15 (ED25519)
PrivateKey: ODIyNjAzODQ2MjgwODAxMjI2NDUxOTAyMDQxNDIyNjI=

example.com. 3600 IN DNSKEY 257 3 15 (
             l02Woi0iS8Aa25FQkUd9RMzZHJpBoRQwAQEX1SxZJA4= )

example.com. 3600 IN DS 3613 15 2 (
             3aa5ab37efce57f737fc1627013fee07bdf241bd10f3b1964ab55c78e79
             a304b )

example.com. 3600 IN MX 10 mail.example.com.

example.com. 3600 IN RRSIG MX 3 3600 (
             1440021600 1438207200 3613 example.com. (
             Edk+IB9KNNWg0HAjm7FazXyrd5m3Rk8zNZbvNpAcM+eysqcUOMIjWoevFkj
             H5GaMWeG96GUVZu6ECKOQmemHDg== )



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RFC 8080                    EdDSA for DNSSEC               February 2017


Private-key-format: v1.2
Algorithm: 15 (ED25519)
PrivateKey: DSSF3o0s0f+ElWzj9E/Osxw8hLpk55chkmx0LYN5WiY=

example.com. 3600 IN DNSKEY 257 3 15 (
             zPnZ/QwEe7S8C5SPz2OfS5RR40ATk2/rYnE9xHIEijs= )

example.com. 3600 IN DS 35217 15 2 (
             401781b934e392de492ec77ae2e15d70f6575a1c0bc59c5275c04ebe80c
             6614c )

example.com. 3600 IN MX 10 mail.example.com.

example.com. 3600 IN RRSIG MX 3 3600 (
             1440021600 1438207200 35217 example.com. (
             5LL2obmzdqjWI+Xto5eP5adXt/T5tMhasWvwcyW4L3SzfcRawOle9bodhC+
             oip9ayUGjY9T/rL4rN3bOuESGDA== )

6.2.  Ed448 Examples

Private-key-format: v1.2
Algorithm: 16 (ED448)
PrivateKey: xZ+5Cgm463xugtkY5B0Jx6erFTXp13rYegst0qRtNsOYnaVpMx0Z/c5EiA9x
            8wWbDDct/U3FhYWA

example.com. 3600 IN DNSKEY 257 3 16 (
             3kgROaDjrh0H2iuixWBrc8g2EpBBLCdGzHmn+G2MpTPhpj/OiBVHHSfPodx
             1FYYUcJKm1MDpJtIA )

example.com. 3600 IN DS 9713 16 2 (
             6ccf18d5bc5d7fc2fceb1d59d17321402f2aa8d368048db93dd811f5cb2
             b19c7 )

example.com. 3600 IN MX 10 mail.example.com.

example.com. 3600 IN RRSIG MX 3 3600 (
             1440021600 1438207200 9713 example.com. (
             Nmc0rgGKpr3GKYXcB1JmqqS4NYwhmechvJTqVzt3jR+Qy/lSLFoIk1L+9e3
             9GPL+5tVzDPN3f9kAwiu8KCuPPjtl227ayaCZtRKZuJax7n9NuYlZJIusX0
             SOIOKBGzG+yWYtz1/jjbzl5GGkWvREUCUA )











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RFC 8080                    EdDSA for DNSSEC               February 2017


Private-key-format: v1.2
Algorithm: 16 (ED448)
PrivateKey: WEykD3ht3MHkU8iH4uVOLz8JLwtRBSqiBoM6fF72+Mrp/u5gjxuB1DV6NnPO
            2BlZdz4hdSTkOdOA

example.com. 3600 IN DNSKEY 257 3 16 (
             kkreGWoccSDmUBGAe7+zsbG6ZAFQp+syPmYUurBRQc3tDjeMCJcVMRDmgcN
             Lp5HlHAMy12VoISsA )

example.com. 3600 IN DS 38353 16 2 (
             645ff078b3568f5852b70cb60e8e696cc77b75bfaaffc118cf79cbda1ba
             28af4 )

example.com. 3600 IN MX 10 mail.example.com.

example.com. 3600 IN RRSIG MX 3 3600 (
             1440021600 1438207200 38353 example.com. (
             +JjANio/LIzp7osmMYE5XD3H/YES8kXs5Vb9H8MjPS8OAGZMD37+LsCIcjg
             5ivt0d4Om/UaqETEAsJjaYe56CEQP5lhRWuD2ivBqE0zfwJTyp4WqvpULbp
             vaukswvv/WNEFxzEYQEIm9+xDlXj4pMAMA )

Corrected Text:

6.  Examples

6.1.  Ed25519 Examples

Private-key-format: v1.2
Algorithm: 15 (ED25519)
PrivateKey: ODIyNjAzODQ2MjgwODAxMjI2NDUxOTAyMDQxNDIyNjI=

example.com. 3600 IN DNSKEY 257 3 15 (
             l02Woi0iS8Aa25FQkUd9RMzZHJpBoRQwAQEX1SxZJA4= )

example.com. 3600 IN DS 3613 15 2 (
             3aa5ab37efce57f737fc1627013fee07bdf241bd10f3b1964ab55c78e79
             a304b )

example.com. 3600 IN MX 10 mail.example.com.

example.com. 3600 IN RRSIG MX 15 2 3600 (
             1440021600 1438207200 3613 example.com. (
             oL9krJun7xfBOIWcGHi7mag5/hdZrKWw15jPGrHpjQeRAvTdszaPD+QLs3f
             x8A4M3e23mRZ9VrbpMngwcrqNAg== )



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RFC 8080                    EdDSA for DNSSEC               February 2017


Private-key-format: v1.2
Algorithm: 15 (ED25519)
PrivateKey: DSSF3o0s0f+ElWzj9E/Osxw8hLpk55chkmx0LYN5WiY=

example.com. 3600 IN DNSKEY 257 3 15 (
             zPnZ/QwEe7S8C5SPz2OfS5RR40ATk2/rYnE9xHIEijs= )

example.com. 3600 IN DS 35217 15 2 (
             401781b934e392de492ec77ae2e15d70f6575a1c0bc59c5275c04ebe80c
             6614c )

example.com. 3600 IN MX 10 mail.example.com.

example.com. 3600 IN RRSIG MX 15 2 3600 (
             1440021600 1438207200 35217 example.com. (
             zXQ0bkYgQTEFyfLyi9QoiY6D8ZdYo4wyUhVioYZXFdT410QPRITQSqJSnzQ
             oSm5poJ7gD7AQR0O7KuI5k2pcBg== )

6.2.  Ed448 Examples

Private-key-format: v1.2
Algorithm: 16 (ED448)
PrivateKey: xZ+5Cgm463xugtkY5B0Jx6erFTXp13rYegst0qRtNsOYnaVpMx0Z/c5EiA9x
            8wWbDDct/U3FhYWA

example.com. 3600 IN DNSKEY 257 3 16 (
             3kgROaDjrh0H2iuixWBrc8g2EpBBLCdGzHmn+G2MpTPhpj/OiBVHHSfPodx
             1FYYUcJKm1MDpJtIA )

example.com. 3600 IN DS 9713 16 2 (
             6ccf18d5bc5d7fc2fceb1d59d17321402f2aa8d368048db93dd811f5cb2
             b19c7 )

example.com. 3600 IN MX 10 mail.example.com.

example.com. 3600 IN RRSIG MX 16 2 3600 (
             1440021600 1438207200 9713 example.com. (
             3cPAHkmlnxcDHMyg7vFC34l0blBhuG1qpwLmjInI8w1CMB29FkEAIJUA0am
             xWndkmnBZ6SKiwZSAxGILn/NBtOXft0+Gj7FSvOKxE/07+4RQvE581N3Aj/
             JtIyaiYVdnYtyMWbSNyGEY2213WKsJlwEA )











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RFC 8080                    EdDSA for DNSSEC               February 2017


Private-key-format: v1.2
Algorithm: 16 (ED448)
PrivateKey: WEykD3ht3MHkU8iH4uVOLz8JLwtRBSqiBoM6fF72+Mrp/u5gjxuB1DV6NnPO
            2BlZdz4hdSTkOdOA

example.com. 3600 IN DNSKEY 257 3 16 (
             kkreGWoccSDmUBGAe7+zsbG6ZAFQp+syPmYUurBRQc3tDjeMCJcVMRDmgcN
             Lp5HlHAMy12VoISsA )

example.com. 3600 IN DS 38353 16 2 (
             645ff078b3568f5852b70cb60e8e696cc77b75bfaaffc118cf79cbda1ba
             28af4 )

example.com. 3600 IN MX 10 mail.example.com.

example.com. 3600 IN RRSIG MX 16 2 3600 (
             1440021600 1438207200 38353 example.com. (
             E1/oLjSGIbmLny/4fcgM1z4oL6aqo+izT3urCyHyvEp4Sp8Syg1eI+lJ57C
             SnZqjJP41O/9l4m0AsQ4f7qI1gVnML8vWWiyW2KXhT9kuAICUSxv5OWbf81
             Rq7Yu60npabODB0QFPb/rkW3kUZmQ0YQUA )
Notes:
The script used to generate the examples (see https://gitlab.labs.nic.cz/labs/ietf/blob/master/dnskey.py) contains two errors that make the RRSIG records in the example section invalid.
1. The script fails to print the algorithm identifier (15 & 16, TBD1 & TBD2 in earlier drafts) for RRSIGs, and
2. the implementation of label counting includes the root zone as a label, giving an incorrect count of 3 rather than 2.

The first bug is more cosmetic but does result in unparsable RRSIG records, while the second bug causes invalid signatures to be produced.

With these two bugs corrected (and no other changes) the script produces valid examples which are included in the correction above. They have been successfully tested with an independent implementation of RFC 8080 based on https://github.com/miekg/dns & https://godoc.org/golang.org/x/crypto/ed25519 .
6.1. Ed25519 Examples Private-key-format: v1.2 Algorithm: 15 (ED25519) PrivateKey: ODIyNjAzODQ2MjgwODAxMjI2NDUxOTAyMDQxNDIyNjI= example.com. 3600 IN DNSKEY 257 3 15 ( l02Woi0iS8Aa25FQkUd9RMzZHJpBoRQwAQEX1SxZJA4= ) example.com. 3600 IN DS 3613 15 2 ( 3aa5ab37efce57f737fc1627013fee07bdf241bd10f3b1964ab55c78e79 a304b ) example.com. 3600 IN MX 10 mail.example.com. example.com. 3600 IN RRSIG MX 3 3600 ( 1440021600 1438207200 3613 example.com. ( Edk+IB9KNNWg0HAjm7FazXyrd5m3Rk8zNZbvNpAcM+eysqcUOMIjWoevFkj H5GaMWeG96GUVZu6ECKOQmemHDg== ) Private-key-format: v1.2 Algorithm: 15 (ED25519) PrivateKey: DSSF3o0s0f+ElWzj9E/Osxw8hLpk55chkmx0LYN5WiY= example.com. 3600 IN DNSKEY 257 3 15 ( zPnZ/QwEe7S8C5SPz2OfS5RR40ATk2/rYnE9xHIEijs= ) example.com. 3600 IN DS 35217 15 2 ( 401781b934e392de492ec77ae2e15d70f6575a1c0bc59c5275c04ebe80c 6614c ) example.com. 3600 IN MX 10 mail.example.com. example.com. 3600 IN RRSIG MX 3 3600 ( 1440021600 1438207200 35217 example.com. ( 5LL2obmzdqjWI+Xto5eP5adXt/T5tMhasWvwcyW4L3SzfcRawOle9bodhC+ oip9ayUGjY9T/rL4rN3bOuESGDA== ) 6.2. Ed448 Examples Private-key-format: v1.2 Algorithm: 16 (ED448) PrivateKey: xZ+5Cgm463xugtkY5B0Jx6erFTXp13rYegst0qRtNsOYnaVpMx0Z/c5EiA9x 8wWbDDct/U3FhYWA example.com. 3600 IN DNSKEY 257 3 16 ( 3kgROaDjrh0H2iuixWBrc8g2EpBBLCdGzHmn+G2MpTPhpj/OiBVHHSfPodx 1FYYUcJKm1MDpJtIA ) example.com. 3600 IN DS 9713 16 2 ( 6ccf18d5bc5d7fc2fceb1d59d17321402f2aa8d368048db93dd811f5cb2 b19c7 ) example.com. 3600 IN MX 10 mail.example.com. example.com. 3600 IN RRSIG MX 3 3600 ( 1440021600 1438207200 9713 example.com. ( Nmc0rgGKpr3GKYXcB1JmqqS4NYwhmechvJTqVzt3jR+Qy/lSLFoIk1L+9e3 9GPL+5tVzDPN3f9kAwiu8KCuPPjtl227ayaCZtRKZuJax7n9NuYlZJIusX0 SOIOKBGzG+yWYtz1/jjbzl5GGkWvREUCUA ) Private-key-format: v1.2 Algorithm: 16 (ED448) PrivateKey: WEykD3ht3MHkU8iH4uVOLz8JLwtRBSqiBoM6fF72+Mrp/u5gjxuB1DV6NnPO 2BlZdz4hdSTkOdOA example.com. 3600 IN DNSKEY 257 3 16 ( kkreGWoccSDmUBGAe7+zsbG6ZAFQp+syPmYUurBRQc3tDjeMCJcVMRDmgcN Lp5HlHAMy12VoISsA ) example.com. 3600 IN DS 38353 16 2 ( 645ff078b3568f5852b70cb60e8e696cc77b75bfaaffc118cf79cbda1ba 28af4 ) example.com. 3600 IN MX 10 mail.example.com. example.com. 3600 IN RRSIG MX 3 3600 ( 1440021600 1438207200 38353 example.com. ( +JjANio/LIzp7osmMYE5XD3H/YES8kXs5Vb9H8MjPS8OAGZMD37+LsCIcjg 5ivt0d4Om/UaqETEAsJjaYe56CEQP5lhRWuD2ivBqE0zfwJTyp4WqvpULbp vaukswvv/WNEFxzEYQEIm9+xDlXj4pMAMA ) 7. IANA Considerations This document updates the IANA registry "Domain Name System Security (DNSSEC) Algorithm Numbers". The following entries have been added to the registry: +--------------+----------+----------+ | Number | 15 | 16 | | Description | Ed25519 | Ed448 | | Mnemonic | ED25519 | ED448 | | Zone Signing | Y | Y | | Trans. Sec. | * | * | | Reference | RFC 8080 | RFC 8080 | +--------------+----------+----------+ * There has been no determination of standardization of the use of this algorithm with Transaction Security. 8. Security Considerations The security considerations of [RFC8032] and [RFC7748] are inherited in the usage of Ed25519 and Ed448 in DNSSEC. Ed25519 is intended to operate at around the 128-bit security level and Ed448 at around the 224-bit security level. A sufficiently large quantum computer would be able to break both. Reasonable projections of the abilities of classical computers conclude that Ed25519 is perfectly safe. Ed448 is provided for those applications with relaxed performance requirements and where there is a desire to hedge against analytical attacks on elliptic curves. These assessments could, of course, change in the future if new attacks that work better than the ones known today are found. A private key used for a DNSSEC zone MUST NOT be used for any other purpose than for that zone. Otherwise, cross-protocol or cross- application attacks are possible. 9. References 9.1. Normative References [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. [RFC4033] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements", RFC 4033, DOI 10.17487/RFC4033, March 2005, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4033>. [RFC4034] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions", RFC 4034, DOI 10.17487/RFC4034, March 2005, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4034>. [RFC4035] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security Extensions", RFC 4035, DOI 10.17487/RFC4035, March 2005, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4035>. [RFC7748] Langley, A., Hamburg, M., and S. Turner, "Elliptic Curves for Security", RFC 7748, DOI 10.17487/RFC7748, January 2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7748>. [RFC8032] Josefsson, S. and I. Liusvaara, "Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA)", RFC 8032, DOI 10.17487/RFC8032, January 2017, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8032>. 9.2. Informative References [RFC5933] Dolmatov, V., Ed., Chuprina, A., and I. Ustinov, "Use of GOST Signature Algorithms in DNSKEY and RRSIG Resource Records for DNSSEC", RFC 5933, DOI 10.17487/RFC5933, July 2010, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5933>. [RFC6605] Hoffman, P. and W. Wijngaards, "Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) for DNSSEC", RFC 6605, DOI 10.17487/RFC6605, April 2012, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6605>. Acknowledgements Some of the material in this document is copied liberally from [RFC6605]. The authors of this document wish to thank Jan Vcelak, Pieter Lexis, Kees Monshouwer, Simon Josefsson, Paul Hoffman, and others for a review of this document. Authors' Addresses Ondrej Sury CZ.NIC Milesovska 1136/5 Praha 130 00 Czech Republic Email: ondrej.sury@nic.cz Robert Edmonds Fastly Atlanta, Georgia United States of America Email: edmonds@mycre.ws