ftp.cc.uoc.gr
rfc8620
This is a purely informative rendering of an RFC that includes verified errata. This rendering may not be used as a reference.

The following 'Verified' errata have been incorporated in this document: EID 5791
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                        N. Jenkins
Request for Comments: 8620                                      Fastmail
Category: Standards Track                                      C. Newman
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                   Oracle
                                                               July 2019


               The JSON Meta Application Protocol (JMAP)

Abstract

   This document specifies a protocol for clients to efficiently query,
   fetch, and modify JSON-based data objects, with support for push
   notification of changes and fast resynchronisation and for out-of-
   band binary data upload/download.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8620.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.1.  Notational Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.2.  The Id Data Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     1.3.  The Int and UnsignedInt Data Types  . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     1.4.  The Date and UTCDate Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     1.5.  JSON as the Data Encoding Format  . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     1.6.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       1.6.1.  User  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       1.6.2.  Accounts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       1.6.3.  Data Types and Records  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     1.7.  The JMAP API Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     1.8.  Vendor-Specific Extensions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   2.  The JMAP Session Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     2.1.  Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     2.2.  Service Autodiscovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   3.  Structured Data Exchange  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     3.1.  Making an API Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     3.2.  The Invocation Data Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     3.3.  The Request Object  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       3.3.1.  Example Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     3.4.  The Response Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
       3.4.1.  Example Response  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     3.5.  Omitting Arguments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     3.6.  Errors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       3.6.1.  Request-Level Errors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       3.6.2.  Method-Level Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     3.7.  References to Previous Method Results . . . . . . . . . .  22
     3.8.  Localisation of User-Visible Strings  . . . . . . . . . .  27
     3.9.  Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     3.10. Concurrency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
   4.  The Core/echo Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     4.1.  Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
   5.  Standard Methods and Naming Convention  . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     5.1.  /get  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     5.2.  /changes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     5.3.  /set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     5.4.  /copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
     5.5.  /query  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
     5.6.  /queryChanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
     5.7.  Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
     5.8.  Proxy Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  58
   6.  Binary Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  58
     6.1.  Uploading Binary Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  59
     6.2.  Downloading Binary Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
     6.3.  Blob/copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  61

   7.  Push  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
     7.1.  The StateChange Object  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63
       7.1.1.  Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  64
     7.2.  PushSubscription  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  64
       7.2.1.  PushSubscription/get  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  67
       7.2.2.  PushSubscription/set  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  68
       7.2.3.  Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  69
     7.3.  Event Source  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
     8.1.  Transport Confidentiality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
     8.2.  Authentication Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
     8.3.  Service Autodiscovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
     8.4.  JSON Parsing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74
     8.5.  Denial of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74
     8.6.  Connection to Unknown Push Server . . . . . . . . . . . .  74
     8.7.  Push Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  75
     8.8.  Traffic Analysis  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  76
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  76
     9.1.  Assignment of jmap Service Name . . . . . . . . . . . . .  76
     9.2.  Registration of Well-Known URI Suffix for JMAP  . . . . .  76
     9.3.  Registration of the jmap URN Sub-namespace  . . . . . . .  77
     9.4.  Creation of "JMAP Capabilities" Registry  . . . . . . . .  77
       9.4.1.  Preliminary Community Review  . . . . . . . . . . . .  77
       9.4.2.  Submit Request to IANA  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78
       9.4.3.  Designated Expert Review  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78
       9.4.4.  Change Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78
       9.4.5.  JMAP Capabilities Registry Template . . . . . . . . .  79
       9.4.6.  Initial Registration for JMAP Core  . . . . . . . . .  79
       9.4.7.  Registration for JMAP Error Placeholder in JMAP
               Capabilities Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  80
     9.5.  Creation of "JMAP Error Codes" Registry . . . . . . . . .  80
       9.5.1.  Expert Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  80
       9.5.2.  JMAP Error Codes Registry Template  . . . . . . . . .  81
       9.5.3.  Initial Contents for the JMAP Error Codes Registry  .  81
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  86
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  86
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  89
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  90

1.  Introduction

   The JSON Meta Application Protocol (JMAP) is used for synchronising
   data, such as mail, calendars, or contacts, between a client and a
   server.  It is optimised for mobile and web environments and aims to
   provide a consistent interface to different data types.

   This specification is for the generic mechanism of data
   synchronisation.  Further specifications define the data models for
   different data types that may be synchronised via JMAP.

   JMAP is designed to make efficient use of limited network resources.
   Multiple API calls may be batched in a single request to the server,
   reducing round trips and improving battery life on mobile devices.
   Push connections remove the need for polling, and an efficient delta
   update mechanism ensures a minimum amount of data is transferred.

   JMAP is designed to be horizontally scalable to a very large number
   of users.  This is facilitated by separate endpoints for users after
   login, the separation of binary and structured data, and a data model
   for sharing that does not allow data dependencies between accounts.

1.1.  Notational Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   The underlying format used for this specification is JSON.
   Consequently, the terms "object" and "array" as well as the four
   primitive types (strings, numbers, booleans, and null) are to be
   interpreted as described in Section 1 of [RFC8259].  Unless otherwise
   noted, all the property names and values are case sensitive.

   Some examples in this document contain "partial" JSON documents used
   for illustrative purposes.  In these examples, three periods "..."
   are used to indicate a portion of the document that has been removed
   for compactness.

   For compatibility with publishing requirements, line breaks have been
   inserted inside long JSON strings, with the following continuation
   lines indented.  To form the valid JSON example, any line breaks
   inside a string must be replaced with a space and any other white
   space after the line break removed.

   Unless otherwise specified, examples of API exchanges only show the
   methodCalls array of the Request object or the methodResponses array
   of the Response object.  For compactness, the rest of the Request/
   Response object is omitted.

   Type signatures are given for all JSON values in this document.  The
   following conventions are used:

   o  "*" - The type is undefined (the value could be any type, although
      permitted values may be constrained by the context of this value).

   o  "String" - The JSON string type.

   o  "Number" - The JSON number type.

   o  "Boolean" - The JSON boolean type.

   o  "A[B]" - A JSON object where the keys are all of type "A", and the
      values are all of type "B".

   o  "A[]" - An array of values of type "A".

   o  "A|B" - The value is either of type "A" or of type "B".

   Other types may also be given, with their representation defined
   elsewhere in this document.

   Object properties may also have a set of attributes defined along
   with the type signature.  These have the following meanings:

   o  "server-set" -- Only the server can set the value for this
      property.  The client MUST NOT send this property when creating a
      new object of this type.

   o  "immutable" -- The value MUST NOT change after the object is
      created.

   o  "default" -- (This is followed by a JSON value).  The value that
      will be used for this property if it is omitted in an argument or
      when creating a new object of this type.

1.2.  The Id Data Type

   All record ids are assigned by the server and are immutable.

   Where "Id" is given as a data type, it means a "String" of at least 1
   and a maximum of 255 octets in size, and it MUST only contain
   characters from the "URL and Filename Safe" base64 alphabet, as
   defined in Section 5 of [RFC4648], excluding the pad character ("=").
   This means the allowed characters are the ASCII alphanumeric
   characters ("A-Za-z0-9"), hyphen ("-"), and underscore ("_").

   These characters are safe to use in almost any context (e.g.,
   filesystems, URIs, and IMAP atoms).  For maximum safety, servers
   SHOULD also follow defensive allocation strategies to avoid creating
   risks where glob completion or data type detection may be present
   (e.g., on filesystems or in spreadsheets).  In particular, it is wise
   to avoid:

   o  Ids starting with a dash

   o  Ids starting with digits

   o  Ids that contain only digits

   o  Ids that differ only by ASCII case (for example, A vs. a)

   o  the specific sequence of three characters "NIL" (because this
      sequence can be confused with the IMAP protocol expression of the
      null value)

   A good solution to these issues is to prefix every id with a single
   alphabetical character.

1.3.  The Int and UnsignedInt Data Types

   Where "Int" is given as a data type, it means an integer in the range
   -2^53+1 <= value <= 2^53-1, the safe range for integers stored in a
   floating-point double, represented as a JSON "Number".

   Where "UnsignedInt" is given as a data type, it means an "Int" where
   the value MUST be in the range 0 <= value <= 2^53-1.

1.4.  The Date and UTCDate Data Types

   Where "Date" is given as a type, it means a string in "date-time"
   format [RFC3339].  To ensure a normalised form, the "time-secfrac"
   MUST always be omitted if zero, and any letters in the string (e.g.,
   "T" and "Z") MUST be uppercase.  For example,
   "2014-10-30T14:12:00+08:00".

   Where "UTCDate" is given as a type, it means a "Date" where the
   "time-offset" component MUST be "Z" (i.e., it must be in UTC time).
   For example, "2014-10-30T06:12:00Z".

1.5.  JSON as the Data Encoding Format

   JSON is a text-based data interchange format as specified in
   [RFC8259].  The Internet JSON (I-JSON) format defined in [RFC7493] is
   a strict subset of this, adding restrictions to avoid potentially
   confusing scenarios (for example, it mandates that an object MUST NOT
   have two members with the same name).

   All data sent from the client to the server or from the server to the
   client (except binary file upload/download) MUST be valid I-JSON
   according to the RFC and is therefore case sensitive and encoded in
   UTF-8 [RFC3629].

1.6.  Terminology

1.6.1.  User

   A user is a person accessing data via JMAP.  A user has a set of
   permissions determining the data that they can see.

1.6.2.  Accounts

   An account is a collection of data.  A single account may contain an
   arbitrary set of data types, for example, a collection of mail,
   contacts, and calendars.  Most JMAP methods take a mandatory
   "accountId" argument that specifies on which account the operations
   are to take place.

   An account is not the same as a user, although it is common for a
   primary account to directly belong to the user.  For example, you may
   have an account that contains data for a group or business, to which
   multiple users have access.

   A single set of credentials may provide access to multiple accounts,
   for example, if another user is sharing their work calendar with the
   authenticated user or if there is a group mailbox for a support-desk
   inbox.

   In the event of a severe internal error, a server may have to
   reallocate ids or do something else that violates standard JMAP data
   constraints for an account.  In this situation, the data on the
   server is no longer compatible with cached data the client may have
   from before.  The server MUST treat this as though the account has
   been deleted and then recreated with a new account id.  Clients will
   then be forced to throw away any data with the old account id and
   refetch all data from scratch.

1.6.3.  Data Types and Records

   JMAP provides a uniform interface for creating, retrieving, updating,
   and deleting various types of objects.  A "data type" is a collection
   of named, typed properties, just like the schema for a database
   table.  Each instance of a data type is called a "record".

   The id of a record is immutable and assigned by the server.  The id
   MUST be unique among all records of the *same type* within the *same
   account*.  Ids may clash across accounts or for two records of
   different types within the same account.

1.7.  The JMAP API Model

   JMAP uses HTTP [RFC7230] to expose API, push, upload, and download
   resources.  All HTTP requests MUST use the "https://" scheme (HTTP
   over TLS [RFC2818]).  All HTTP requests MUST be authenticated.

   An authenticated client can fetch the user's Session object with
   details about the data and capabilities the server can provide as
   shown in Section 2.  The client may then exchange data with the
   server in the following ways:

   1.  The client may make an API request to the server to get or set
       structured data.  This request consists of an ordered series of
       method calls.  These are processed by the server, which then
       returns an ordered series of responses.  This is described in
       Sections 3, 4, and 5.

   2.  The client may download or upload binary files from/to the
       server.  This is detailed in Section 6.

   3.  The client may connect to a push channel on the server, to be
       notified when data has changed.  This is explained in Section 7.

1.8.  Vendor-Specific Extensions

   Individual services will have custom features they wish to expose
   over JMAP.  This may take the form of extra data types and/or methods
   not in the spec, extra arguments to JMAP methods, or extra properties
   on existing data types (which may also appear in arguments to methods
   that take property names).

   The server can advertise custom extensions it supports by including
   the identifiers in the capabilities object.  Identifiers for vendor
   extensions MUST be a URL belonging to a domain owned by the vendor,
   to avoid conflict.  The URL SHOULD resolve to documentation for the
   changes the extension makes.

   The client MUST opt in to use an extension by passing the appropriate
   capability identifier in the "using" array of the Request object, as
   described in Section 3.3.  The server MUST only follow the
   specifications that are opted into and behave as though it does not
   implement anything else when processing a request.  This is to ensure
   compatibility with clients that don't know about a specific custom
   extension and for compatibility with future versions of JMAP.

2.  The JMAP Session Resource

   You need two things to connect to a JMAP server:

   1.  The URL for the JMAP Session resource.  This may be requested
       directly from the user or discovered automatically based on a
       username domain (see Section 2.2 below).

   2.  Credentials to authenticate with.  How to obtain credentials is
       out of scope for this document.

   A successful authenticated GET request to the JMAP Session resource
   MUST return a JSON-encoded *Session* object, giving details about the
   data and capabilities the server can provide to the client given
   those credentials.  It has the following properties:

   o  capabilities: "String[Object]"

      An object specifying the capabilities of this server.  Each key is
      a URI for a capability supported by the server.  The value for
      each of these keys is an object with further information about the
      server's capabilities in relation to that capability.

      The client MUST ignore any properties it does not understand.

      The capabilities object MUST include a property called
      "urn:ietf:params:jmap:core".  The value of this property is an
      object that MUST contain the following information on server
      capabilities (suggested minimum values for limits are supplied
      that allow clients to make efficient use of the network):

      *  maxSizeUpload: "UnsignedInt"

         The maximum file size, in octets, that the server will accept
         for a single file upload (for any purpose).  Suggested minimum:
         50,000,000.

      *  maxConcurrentUpload: "UnsignedInt"

         The maximum number of concurrent requests the server will
         accept to the upload endpoint.  Suggested minimum: 4.

      *  maxSizeRequest: "UnsignedInt"

         The maximum size, in octets, that the server will accept for a
         single request to the API endpoint.  Suggested minimum:
         10,000,000.

      *  maxConcurrentRequests: "UnsignedInt"

         The maximum number of concurrent requests the server will
         accept to the API endpoint.  Suggested minimum: 4.

      *  maxCallsInRequest: "UnsignedInt"

         The maximum number of method calls the server will accept in a
         single request to the API endpoint.  Suggested minimum: 16.

      *  maxObjectsInGet: "UnsignedInt"

         The maximum number of objects that the client may request in a
         single /get type method call.  Suggested minimum: 500.

      *  maxObjectsInSet: "UnsignedInt"

         The maximum number of objects the client may send to create,
         update, or destroy in a single /set type method call.  This is
         the combined total, e.g., if the maximum is 10, you could not
         create 7 objects and destroy 6, as this would be 13 actions,
         which exceeds the limit.  Suggested minimum: 500.

      *  collationAlgorithms: "String[]"

         A list of identifiers for algorithms registered in the
         collation registry, as defined in [RFC4790], that the server
         supports for sorting when querying records.

      Specifications for future capabilities will define their own
      properties on the capabilities object.

      Servers MAY advertise vendor-specific JMAP extensions, as
      described in Section 1.8.  To avoid conflict, an identifier for a
      vendor-specific extension MUST be a URL with a domain owned by the
      vendor.  Clients MUST opt in to any capability it wishes to use
      (see Section 3.3).

   o  accounts: "Id[Account]"

      A map of an account id to an Account object for each account (see
      Section 1.6.2) the user has access to.  An *Account* object has
      the following properties:

      *  name: "String"

         A user-friendly string to show when presenting content from
         this account, e.g., the email address representing the owner of
         the account.

      *  isPersonal: "Boolean"

         This is true if the account belongs to the authenticated user
         rather than a group account or a personal account of another
         user that has been shared with them.

      *  isReadOnly: "Boolean"

         This is true if the entire account is read-only.

      *  accountCapabilities: "String[Object]"

         The set of capability URIs for the methods supported in this
         account.  Each key is a URI for a capability that has methods
         you can use with this account.  The value for each of these
         keys is an object with further information about the account's
         permissions and restrictions with respect to this capability,
         as defined in the capability's specification.

         The client MUST ignore any properties it does not understand.

         The server advertises the full list of capabilities it supports
         in the capabilities object, as defined above.  If the
         capability defines new methods, the server MUST include it in
         the accountCapabilities object if the user may use those
         methods with this account.  It MUST NOT include it in the
         accountCapabilities object if the user cannot use those methods
         with this account.

         For example, you may have access to your own account with mail,
         calendars, and contacts data and also a shared account that
         only has contacts data (a business address book, for example).
         In this case, the accountCapabilities property on the first
         account would include something like
         "urn:ietf:params:jmap:mail", "urn:ietf:params:jmap:calendars",
         and "urn:ietf:params:jmap:contacts", while the second account
         would just have the last of these.

         Attempts to use the methods defined in a capability with one of
         the accounts that does not support that capability are rejected
         with an "accountNotSupportedByMethod" error (see "Method-Level
         Errors", Section 3.6.2).

   o  primaryAccounts: "String[Id]"

      A map of capability URIs (as found in accountCapabilities) to the
      account id that is considered to be the user's main or default
      account for data pertaining to that capability.  If no account
      being returned belongs to the user, or in any other way there is
      no appropriate way to determine a default account, there MAY be no
      entry for a particular URI, even though that capability is
      supported by the server (and in the capabilities object).
      "urn:ietf:params:jmap:core" SHOULD NOT be present.

   o  username: "String"

      The username associated with the given credentials, or the empty
      string if none.

   o  apiUrl: "String"

      The URL to use for JMAP API requests.

   o  downloadUrl: "String"

      The URL endpoint to use when downloading files, in URI Template
      (level 1) format [RFC6570].  The URL MUST contain variables called
      "accountId", "blobId", "type", and "name".  The use of these
      variables is described in Section 6.2.  Due to potential encoding
      issues with slashes in content types, it is RECOMMENDED to put the
      "type" variable in the query section of the URL.

   o  uploadUrl: "String"

      The URL endpoint to use when uploading files, in URI Template
      (level 1) format [RFC6570].  The URL MUST contain a variable
      called "accountId".  The use of this variable is described in
      Section 6.1.

   o  eventSourceUrl: "String"

      The URL to connect to for push events, as described in
      Section 7.3, in URI Template (level 1) format [RFC6570].  The URL
      MUST contain variables called "types", "closeafter", and "ping".
      The use of these variables is described in Section 7.3.

   o  state: "String"

      A (preferably short) string representing the state of this object
      on the server.  If the value of any other property on the Session
      object changes, this string will change.  The current value is
      also returned on the API Response object (see Section 3.4),
      allowing clients to quickly determine if the session information
      has changed (e.g., an account has been added or removed), so they
      need to refetch the object.

   To ensure future compatibility, other properties MAY be included on
   the Session object.  Clients MUST ignore any properties they are not
   expecting.

   Implementors must take care to avoid inappropriate caching of the
   Session object at the HTTP layer.  Since the client should only
   refetch when it detects there is a change (via the sessionState
   property of an API response), it is RECOMMENDED to disable HTTP
   caching altogether, for example, by setting "Cache-Control: no-cache,
   no-store, must-revalidate" on the response.

2.1.  Example

   In the following example Session object, the user has access to their
   own mail and contacts via JMAP, as well as read-only access to shared
   mail from another user.  The server is advertising a custom
   "https://example.com/apis/foobar" capability.

   {
     "capabilities": { 
  "urn:ietf:params:jmap:core": {
    "maxSizeUpload": 50000000,
    "maxConcurrentUpload": 8,
    "maxSizeRequest": 10000000,
    "maxConcurrentRequests": 8,
    "maxCallsInRequest": 32,
    "maxObjectsInGet": 256,
    "maxObjectsInSet": 128,
    "collationAlgorithms": [
      "i;ascii-numeric",
      "i;ascii-casemap",
      "i;unicode-casemap"
    ]
  },
  "urn:ietf:params:jmap:mail": {},
  "urn:ietf:params:jmap:contacts": {},
  "https://example.com/apis/foobar": {
    "maxFoosFinangled": 42
  }
},
EID 5791 (Verified) is as follows:

Section: 2.1

Original Text:

"capabilities": {
  "urn:ietf:params:jmap:core": {
    "maxSizeUpload": 50000000,
    "maxConcurrentUpload": 8,
    "maxSizeRequest": 10000000,
    "maxConcurrentRequest": 8,
    "maxCallsInRequest": 32,
    "maxObjectsInGet": 256,
    "maxObjectsInSet": 128,
    "collationAlgorithms": [
      "i;ascii-numeric",
      "i;ascii-casemap",
      "i;unicode-casemap"
    ]
  },
  "urn:ietf:params:jmap:mail": {}
  "urn:ietf:params:jmap:contacts": {},
  "https://example.com/apis/foobar": {
    "maxFoosFinangled": 42
  }
}

Corrected Text:

"capabilities": {
  "urn:ietf:params:jmap:core": {
    "maxSizeUpload": 50000000,
    "maxConcurrentUpload": 8,
    "maxSizeRequest": 10000000,
    "maxConcurrentRequests": 8,
    "maxCallsInRequest": 32,
    "maxObjectsInGet": 256,
    "maxObjectsInSet": 128,
    "collationAlgorithms": [
      "i;ascii-numeric",
      "i;ascii-casemap",
      "i;unicode-casemap"
    ]
  },
  "urn:ietf:params:jmap:mail": {},
  "urn:ietf:params:jmap:contacts": {},
  "https://example.com/apis/foobar": {
    "maxFoosFinangled": 42
  }
}
Notes:
In the capabilities section of the example Session Resource response, "maxConcurrentRequest" should be "maxConcurrentRequests".

In addition, the following line is missing a trailing comma:
"urn:ietf:params:jmap:mail": {}
"accounts": { "A13824": { "name": "john@example.com", "isPersonal": true, "isReadOnly": false, "accountCapabilities": { "urn:ietf:params:jmap:mail": { "maxMailboxesPerEmail": null, "maxMailboxDepth": 10, ... }, "urn:ietf:params:jmap:contacts": { ... } } }, "A97813": { "name": "jane@example.com", "isPersonal": false, "isReadOnly": true, "accountCapabilities": { "urn:ietf:params:jmap:mail": { "maxMailboxesPerEmail": 1, "maxMailboxDepth": 10, ... } } } }, "primaryAccounts": { "urn:ietf:params:jmap:mail": "A13824", "urn:ietf:params:jmap:contacts": "A13824" }, "username": "john@example.com", "apiUrl": "https://jmap.example.com/api/", "downloadUrl": "https://jmap.example.com /download/{accountId}/{blobId}/{name}?accept={type}", "uploadUrl": "https://jmap.example.com/upload/{accountId}/", "eventSourceUrl": "https://jmap.example.com /eventsource/?types={types}&closeafter={closeafter}&ping={ping}", "state": "75128aab4b1b" } 2.2. Service Autodiscovery There are two standardised autodiscovery methods in use for Internet protocols: o DNS SRV (see [RFC2782], [RFC6186], and [RFC6764]) o .well-known/servicename (see [RFC8615]) A JMAP-supporting host for the domain "example.com" SHOULD publish a SRV record "_jmap._tcp.example.com" that gives a hostname and port (usually port "443"). The JMAP Session resource is then "https://${hostname}[:${port}]/.well-known/jmap" (following any redirects). If the client has a username in the form of an email address, it MAY use the domain portion of this to attempt autodiscovery of the JMAP server. 3. Structured Data Exchange The client may make an API request to the server to get or set structured data. This request consists of an ordered series of method calls. These are processed by the server, which then returns an ordered series of responses. 3.1. Making an API Request To make an API request, the client makes an authenticated POST request to the API resource, which is defined by the "apiUrl" property in the Session object (see Section 2). The request MUST be of type "application/json" and consist of a single JSON-encoded "Request" object, as defined in Section 3.3. If successful, the response MUST also be of type "application/json" and consist of a single "Response" object, as defined in Section 3.4. 3.2. The Invocation Data Type Method calls and responses are represented by the *Invocation* data type. This is a tuple, represented as a JSON array containing three elements: 1. A "String" *name* of the method to call or of the response. 2. A "String[*]" object containing named *arguments* for that method or response. 3. A "String" *method call id*: an arbitrary string from the client to be echoed back with the responses emitted by that method call (a method may return 1 or more responses, as it may make implicit calls to other methods; all responses initiated by this method call get the same method call id in the response). 3.3. The Request Object A *Request* object has the following properties: o using: "String[]" The set of capabilities the client wishes to use. The client MAY include capability identifiers even if the method calls it makes do not utilise those capabilities. The server advertises the set of specifications it supports in the Session object (see Section 2), as keys on the "capabilities" property. o methodCalls: "Invocation[]" An array of method calls to process on the server. The method calls MUST be processed sequentially, in order. o createdIds: "Id[Id]" (optional) A map of a (client-specified) creation id to the id the server assigned when a record was successfully created. As described later in this specification, some records may have a property that contains the id of another record. To allow more efficient network usage, you can set this property to reference a record created earlier in the same API request. Since the real id is unknown when the request is created, the client can instead specify the creation id it assigned, prefixed with a "#" (see Section 5.3 for more details). As the server processes API requests, any time it successfully creates a new record, it adds the creation id to this map (see the "create" argument to /set in Section 5.3), with the server- assigned real id as the value. If it comes across a reference to a creation id in a create/update, it looks it up in the map and replaces the reference with the real id, if found. The client can pass an initial value for this map as the "createdIds" property of the Request object. This may be an empty object. If given in the request, the response will also include a createdIds property. This allows proxy servers to easily split a JMAP request into multiple JMAP requests to send to different servers. For example, it could send the first two method calls to server A, then the third to server B, before sending the fourth to server A again. By passing the createdIds of the previous response to the next request, it can ensure all of these still resolve. See Section 5.8 for further discussion of proxy considerations. Future specifications MAY add further properties to the Request object to extend the semantics. To ensure forwards compatibility, a server MUST ignore any other properties it does not understand on the JMAP Request object. 3.3.1. Example Request { "using": [ "urn:ietf:params:jmap:core", "urn:ietf:params:jmap:mail" ], "methodCalls": [ [ "method1", { "arg1": "arg1data", "arg2": "arg2data" }, "c1" ], [ "method2", { "arg1": "arg1data" }, "c2" ], [ "method3", {}, "c3" ] ] } 3.4. The Response Object A *Response* object has the following properties: o methodResponses: "Invocation[]" An array of responses, in the same format as the "methodCalls" on the Request object. The output of the methods MUST be added to the "methodResponses" array in the same order that the methods are processed. o createdIds: "Id[Id]" (optional; only returned if given in the request) A map of a (client-specified) creation id to the id the server assigned when a record was successfully created. This MUST include all creation ids passed in the original createdIds parameter of the Request object, as well as any additional ones added for newly created records. o sessionState: "String" The current value of the "state" string on the Session object, as described in Section 2. Clients may use this to detect if this object has changed and needs to be refetched. Unless otherwise specified, if the method call completed successfully, its response name is the same as the method name in the request. 3.4.1. Example Response { "methodResponses": [ [ "method1", { "arg1": 3, "arg2": "foo" }, "c1" ], [ "method2", { "isBlah": true }, "c2" ], [ "anotherResponseFromMethod2", { "data": 10, "yetmoredata": "Hello" }, "c2"], [ "error", { "type":"unknownMethod" }, "c3" ] ], "sessionState": "75128aab4b1b" } 3.5. Omitting Arguments An argument to a method may be specified to have a default value. If omitted by the client, the server MUST treat the method call the same as if the default value had been specified. Similarly, the server MAY omit any argument in a response that has the default value. Unless otherwise specified in a method description, null is the default value for any argument in a request or response where this is allowed by the type signature. Other arguments may only be omitted if an explicit default value is defined in the method description. 3.6. Errors There are three different levels of granularity at which an error may be returned in JMAP. When an API request is made, the request as a whole may be rejected due to rate limiting, malformed JSON, request for an unknown capability, etc. In this case, the entire request is rejected with an appropriate HTTP error response code and an additional JSON body with more detail for the client. Provided the request itself is syntactically valid (the JSON is valid and when decoded, it matches the type signature of a Request object), the methods within it are executed sequentially by the server. Each method may individually fail, for example, if invalid arguments are given or an unknown method name is called. Finally, methods that make changes to the server state often act upon a number of different records within a single call. Each record change may be separately rejected with a SetError, as described in Section 5.3. 3.6.1. Request-Level Errors When an HTTP error response is returned to the client, the server SHOULD return a JSON "problem details" object as the response body, as per [RFC7807]. The following problem types are defined: o "urn:ietf:params:jmap:error:unknownCapability" The client included a capability in the "using" property of the request that the server does not support. o "urn:ietf:params:jmap:error:notJSON" The content type of the request was not "application/json" or the request did not parse as I-JSON. o "urn:ietf:params:jmap:error:notRequest" The request parsed as JSON but did not match the type signature of the Request object. o "urn:ietf:params:jmap:error:limit" The request was not processed as it would have exceeded one of the request limits defined on the capability object, such as maxSizeRequest, maxCallsInRequest, or maxConcurrentRequests. A "limit" property MUST also be present on the "problem details" object, containing the name of the limit being applied. 3.6.1.1. Example { "type": "urn:ietf:params:jmap:error:unknownCapability", "status": 400, "detail": "The Request object used capability 'https://example.com/apis/foobar', which is not supported by this server." } Another example: { "type": "urn:ietf:params:jmap:error:limit", "limit": "maxSizeRequest", "status": 400, "detail": "The request is larger than the server is willing to process." } 3.6.2. Method-Level Errors If a method encounters an error, the appropriate "error" response MUST be inserted at the current point in the "methodResponses" array and, unless otherwise specified, further processing MUST NOT happen within that method call. Any further method calls in the request MUST then be processed as normal. Errors at the method level MUST NOT generate an HTTP-level error. An "error" response looks like this: [ "error", { "type": "unknownMethod" }, "call-id" ] The response name is "error", and it MUST have a type property. Other properties may be present with further information; these are detailed in the error type descriptions where appropriate. With the exception of when the "serverPartialFail" error is returned, the externally visible state of the server MUST NOT have changed if an error is returned at the method level. The following error types are defined, which may be returned for any method call where appropriate: "serverUnavailable": Some internal server resource was temporarily unavailable. Attempting the same operation later (perhaps after a backoff with a random factor) may succeed. "serverFail": An unexpected or unknown error occurred during the processing of the call. A "description" property should provide more details about the error. The method call made no changes to the server's state. Attempting the same operation again is expected to fail again. Contacting the service administrator is likely necessary to resolve this problem if it is persistent. "serverPartialFail": Some, but not all, expected changes described by the method occurred. The client MUST resynchronise impacted data to determine server state. Use of this error is strongly discouraged. "unknownMethod": The server does not recognise this method name. "invalidArguments": One of the arguments is of the wrong type or is otherwise invalid, or a required argument is missing. A "description" property MAY be present to help debug with an explanation of what the problem was. This is a non-localised string, and it is not intended to be shown directly to end users. "invalidResultReference": The method used a result reference for one of its arguments (see Section 3.7), but this failed to resolve. "forbidden": The method and arguments are valid, but executing the method would violate an Access Control List (ACL) or other permissions policy. "accountNotFound": The accountId does not correspond to a valid account. "accountNotSupportedByMethod": The accountId given corresponds to a valid account, but the account does not support this method or data type. "accountReadOnly": This method modifies state, but the account is read-only (as returned on the corresponding Account object in the JMAP Session resource). Further possible errors for a particular method are specified in the method descriptions. Further general errors MAY be defined in future RFCs. Should a client receive an error type it does not understand, it MUST treat it the same as the "serverFail" type. 3.7. References to Previous Method Results To allow clients to make more efficient use of the network and avoid round trips, an argument to one method can be taken from the result of a previous method call in the same request. To do this, the client prefixes the argument name with "#" (an octothorpe). The value is a ResultReference object as described below. When processing a method call, the server MUST first check the arguments object for any names beginning with "#". If found, the result reference should be resolved and the value used as the "real" argument. The method is then processed as normal. If any result reference fails to resolve, the whole method MUST be rejected with an "invalidResultReference" error. If an arguments object contains the same argument name in normal and referenced form (e.g., "foo" and "#foo"), the method MUST return an "invalidArguments" error. A *ResultReference* object has the following properties: o resultOf: "String" The method call id (see Section 3.2) of a previous method call in the current request. o name: "String" The required name of a response to that method call. o path: "String" A pointer into the arguments of the response selected via the name and resultOf properties. This is a JSON Pointer [RFC6901], except it also allows the use of "*" to map through an array (see the description below). To resolve: 1. Find the first response with a method call id identical to the "resultOf" property of the ResultReference in the "methodResponses" array from previously processed method calls in the same request. If none, evaluation fails. 2. If the response name is not identical to the "name" property of the ResultReference, evaluation fails. 3. Apply the "path" to the arguments object of the response (the second item in the response array) following the JSON Pointer algorithm [RFC6901], except with the following addition in "Evaluation" (see Section 4): If the currently referenced value is a JSON array, the reference token may be exactly the single character "*", making the new referenced value the result of applying the rest of the JSON Pointer tokens to every item in the array and returning the results in the same order in a new array. If the result of applying the rest of the pointer tokens to each item was itself an array, the contents of this array are added to the output rather than the array itself (i.e., the result is flattened from an array of arrays to a single array). If the result of applying the rest of the pointer tokens to a value was itself an array, its items should be included individually in the output rather than including the array itself (i.e., the result is flattened from an array of arrays to a single array). As a simple example, suppose we have the following API request "methodCalls": [[ "Foo/changes", { "accountId": "A1", "sinceState": "abcdef" }, "t0" ], [ "Foo/get", { "accountId": "A1", "#ids": { "resultOf": "t0", "name": "Foo/changes", "path": "/created" } }, "t1" ]] After executing the first method call, the "methodResponses" array is: [[ "Foo/changes", { "accountId": "A1", "oldState": "abcdef", "newState": "123456", "hasMoreChanges": false, "created": [ "f1", "f4" ], "updated": [], "destroyed": [] }, "t0" ]] To execute the "Foo/get" call, we look through the arguments and find there is one with a "#" prefix. To resolve this, we apply the algorithm above: 1. Find the first response with method call id "t0". The "Foo/ changes" response fulfils this criterion. 2. Check that the response name is the same as in the result reference. It is, so this is fine. 3. Apply the "path" as a JSON Pointer to the arguments object. This simply selects the "created" property, so the result of evaluating is: [ "f1", "f4" ]. The JMAP server now continues to process the "Foo/get" call as though the arguments were: { "accountId": "A1", "ids": [ "f1", "f4" ] } Now, a more complicated example using the JMAP Mail data model: fetch the "from"/"date"/"subject" for every Email in the first 10 Threads in the inbox (sorted newest first): [[ "Email/query", { "accountId": "A1", "filter": { "inMailbox": "id_of_inbox" }, "sort": [{ "property": "receivedAt", "isAscending": false }], "collapseThreads": true, "position": 0, "limit": 10, "calculateTotal": true }, "t0" ], [ "Email/get", { "accountId": "A1", "#ids": { "resultOf": "t0", "name": "Email/query", "path": "/ids" }, "properties": [ "threadId" ] }, "t1" ], [ "Thread/get", { "accountId": "A1", "#ids": { "resultOf": "t1", "name": "Email/get", "path": "/list/*/threadId" } }, "t2" ], [ "Email/get", { "accountId": "A1", "#ids": { "resultOf": "t2", "name": "Thread/get", "path": "/list/*/emailIds" }, "properties": [ "from", "receivedAt", "subject" ] }, "t3" ]] After executing the first 3 method calls, the "methodResponses" array might be: [[ "Email/query", { "accountId": "A1", "queryState": "abcdefg", "canCalculateChanges": true, "position": 0, "total": 101, "ids": [ "msg1023", "msg223", "msg110", "msg93", "msg91", "msg38", "msg36", "msg33", "msg11", "msg1" ] }, "t0" ], [ "Email/get", { "accountId": "A1", "state": "123456", "list": [{ "id": "msg1023", "threadId": "trd194" }, { "id": "msg223", "threadId": "trd114" }, ... ], "notFound": [] }, "t1" ], [ "Thread/get", { "accountId": "A1", "state": "123456", "list": [{ "id": "trd194", "emailIds": [ "msg1020", "msg1021", "msg1023" ] }, { "id": "trd114", "emailIds": [ "msg201", "msg223" ] }, ... ], "notFound": [] }, "t2" ]] To execute the final "Email/get" call, we look through the arguments and find there is one with a "#" prefix. To resolve this, we apply the algorithm: 1. Find the first response with method call id "t2". The "Thread/ get" response fulfils this criterion. 2. "Thread/get" is the name specified in the result reference, so this is fine. 3. Apply the "path" as a JSON Pointer to the arguments object. Token by token: 1. "list": get the array of thread objects 2. "*": for each of the items in the array: a. "emailIds": get the array of Email ids b. Concatenate these into a single array of all the ids in the result. The JMAP server now continues to process the "Email/get" call as though the arguments were: { "accountId": "A1", "ids": [ "msg1020", "msg1021", "msg1023", "msg201", "msg223", ... ], "properties": [ "from", "receivedAt", "subject" ] } The ResultReference performs a similar role to that of the creation id, in that it allows a chained method call to refer to information not available when the request is generated. However, they are different things and not interchangeable; the only commonality is the octothorpe used to indicate them. 3.8. Localisation of User-Visible Strings If returning a custom string to be displayed to the user, for example, an error message, the server SHOULD use information from the Accept-Language header of the request (as defined in Section 5.3.5 of [RFC7231]) to choose the best available localisation. The Content- Language header of the response (see Section 3.1.3.2 of [RFC7231]) SHOULD indicate the language being used for user-visible strings. For example, suppose a request was made with the following header: Accept-Language: fr-CH, fr;q=0.9, de;q=0.8, en;q=0.7, *;q=0.5 and a method generated an error to display to the user. The server has translations of the error message in English and German. Looking at the Accept-Language header, the user's preferred language is French. Since we don't have a translation for this, we look at the next most preferred, which is German. We have a German translation, so the server returns this and indicates the language chosen in a Content-Language header like so: Content-Language: de 3.9. Security As always, the server must be strict about data received from the client. Arguments need to be checked for validity; a malicious user could attempt to find an exploit through the API. In case of invalid arguments (unknown/insufficient/wrong type for data, etc.), the method MUST return an "invalidArguments" error and terminate. 3.10. Concurrency Method calls within a single request MUST be executed in order. However, method calls from different concurrent API requests may be interleaved. This means that the data on the server may change between two method calls within a single API request. 4. The Core/echo Method The "Core/echo" method returns exactly the same arguments as it is given. It is useful for testing if you have a valid authenticated connection to a JMAP API endpoint. 4.1. Example Request: [[ "Core/echo", { "hello": true, "high": 5 }, "b3ff" ]] Response: [[ "Core/echo", { "hello": true, "high": 5 }, "b3ff" ]] 5. Standard Methods and Naming Convention JMAP provides a uniform interface for creating, retrieving, updating, and deleting objects of a particular type. For a "Foo" data type, records of that type would be fetched via a "Foo/get" call and modified via a "Foo/set" call. Delta updates may be fetched via a "Foo/changes" call. These methods all follow a standard format as described below. Some types may not have all these methods. Specifications defining types MUST specify which methods are available for the type. 5.1. /get Objects of type Foo are fetched via a call to "Foo/get". It takes the following arguments: o accountId: "Id" The id of the account to use. o ids: "Id[]|null" The ids of the Foo objects to return. If null, then *all* records of the data type are returned, if this is supported for that data type and the number of records does not exceed the "maxObjectsInGet" limit. o properties: "String[]|null" If supplied, only the properties listed in the array are returned for each Foo object. If null, all properties of the object are returned. The id property of the object is *always* returned, even if not explicitly requested. If an invalid property is requested, the call MUST be rejected with an "invalidArguments" error. The response has the following arguments: o accountId: "Id" The id of the account used for the call. o state: "String" A (preferably short) string representing the state on the server for *all* the data of this type in the account (not just the objects returned in this call). If the data changes, this string MUST change. If the Foo data is unchanged, servers SHOULD return the same state string on subsequent requests for this data type. When a client receives a response with a different state string to a previous call, it MUST either throw away all currently cached objects for the type or call "Foo/changes" to get the exact changes. o list: "Foo[]" An array of the Foo objects requested. This is the *empty array* if no objects were found or if the "ids" argument passed in was also an empty array. The results MAY be in a different order to the "ids" in the request arguments. If an identical id is included more than once in the request, the server MUST only include it once in either the "list" or the "notFound" argument of the response. o notFound: "Id[]" This array contains the ids passed to the method for records that do not exist. The array is empty if all requested ids were found or if the "ids" argument passed in was either null or an empty array. The following additional error may be returned instead of the "Foo/ get" response: "requestTooLarge": The number of ids requested by the client exceeds the maximum number the server is willing to process in a single method call. 5.2. /changes When the state of the set of Foo records in an account changes on the server (whether due to creation, updates, or deletion), the "state" property of the "Foo/get" response will change. The "Foo/changes" method allows a client to efficiently update the state of its Foo cache to match the new state on the server. It takes the following arguments: o accountId: "Id" The id of the account to use. o sinceState: "String" The current state of the client. This is the string that was returned as the "state" argument in the "Foo/get" response. The server will return the changes that have occurred since this state. o maxChanges: "UnsignedInt|null" The maximum number of ids to return in the response. The server MAY choose to return fewer than this value but MUST NOT return more. If not given by the client, the server may choose how many to return. If supplied by the client, the value MUST be a positive integer greater than 0. If a value outside of this range is given, the server MUST reject the call with an "invalidArguments" error. The response has the following arguments: o accountId: "Id" The id of the account used for the call. o oldState: "String" This is the "sinceState" argument echoed back; it's the state from which the server is returning changes. o newState: "String" This is the state the client will be in after applying the set of changes to the old state. o hasMoreChanges: "Boolean" If true, the client may call "Foo/changes" again with the "newState" returned to get further updates. If false, "newState" is the current server state. o created: "Id[]" An array of ids for records that have been created since the old state. o updated: "Id[]" An array of ids for records that have been updated since the old state. o destroyed: "Id[]" An array of ids for records that have been destroyed since the old state. If a record has been created AND updated since the old state, the server SHOULD just return the id in the "created" list but MAY return it in the "updated" list as well. If a record has been updated AND destroyed since the old state, the server SHOULD just return the id in the "destroyed" list but MAY return it in the "updated" list as well. If a record has been created AND destroyed since the old state, the server SHOULD remove the id from the response entirely. However, it MAY include it in just the "destroyed" list or in both the "destroyed" and "created" lists. If a "maxChanges" is supplied, or set automatically by the server, the server MUST ensure the number of ids returned across "created", "updated", and "destroyed" does not exceed this limit. If there are more changes than this between the client's state and the current server state, the server SHOULD generate an update to take the client to an intermediate state, from which the client can continue to call "Foo/changes" until it is fully up to date. If it is unable to calculate an intermediate state, it MUST return a "cannotCalculateChanges" error response instead. When generating intermediate states, the server may choose how to divide up the changes. For many types, it will provide a better user experience to return the more recent changes first, as this is more likely to be what the user is most interested in. The client can then continue to page in the older changes while the user is viewing the newer data. For example, suppose a server went through the following states: A -> B -> C -> D -> E And a client asks for changes from state "B". The server might first get the ids of records created, updated, or destroyed between states D and E, returning them with: state: "B-D-E" hasMoreChanges: true The client will then ask for the change from state "B-D-E", and the server can return the changes between states C and D, returning: state: "B-C-E" hasMoreChanges: true Finally, the client will request the changes from "B-C-E", and the server can return the changes between states B and C, returning: state: "E" hasMoreChanges: false Should the state on the server be modified in the middle of all this (to "F"), the server still does the same, but now when the update to state "E" is returned, it would indicate that it still has more changes for the client to fetch. Where multiple changes to a record are split across different intermediate states, the server MUST NOT return a record as created after a response that deems it as updated or destroyed, and it MUST NOT return a record as destroyed before a response that deems it as created or updated. The server may have to coalesce multiple changes to a record to satisfy this requirement. The following additional errors may be returned instead of the "Foo/ changes" response: "cannotCalculateChanges": The server cannot calculate the changes from the state string given by the client. Usually, this is due to the client's state being too old or the server being unable to produce an update to an intermediate state when there are too many updates. The client MUST invalidate its Foo cache. Maintaining state to allow calculation of "Foo/changes" can be expensive for the server, but always returning "cannotCalculateChanges" severely increases network traffic and resource usage for the client. To allow efficient sync, servers SHOULD be able to calculate changes from any state string that was given to a client within the last 30 days (but of course may support calculating updates from states older than this). 5.3. /set Modifying the state of Foo objects on the server is done via the "Foo/set" method. This encompasses creating, updating, and destroying Foo records. This allows the server to sort out ordering and dependencies that may exist if doing multiple operations at once (for example, to ensure there is always a minimum number of a certain record type). The "Foo/set" method takes the following arguments: o accountId: "Id" The id of the account to use. o ifInState: "String|null" This is a state string as returned by the "Foo/get" method (representing the state of all objects of this type in the account). If supplied, the string must match the current state; otherwise, the method will be aborted and a "stateMismatch" error returned. If null, any changes will be applied to the current state. o create: "Id[Foo]|null" A map of a *creation id* (a temporary id set by the client) to Foo objects, or null if no objects are to be created. The Foo object type definition may define default values for properties. Any such property may be omitted by the client. The client MUST omit any properties that may only be set by the server (for example, the "id" property on most object types). o update: "Id[PatchObject]|null" A map of an id to a Patch object to apply to the current Foo object with that id, or null if no objects are to be updated. A *PatchObject* is of type "String[*]" and represents an unordered set of patches. The keys are a path in JSON Pointer format [RFC6901], with an implicit leading "/" (i.e., prefix each key with "/" before applying the JSON Pointer evaluation algorithm). All paths MUST also conform to the following restrictions; if there is any violation, the update MUST be rejected with an "invalidPatch" error: * The pointer MUST NOT reference inside an array (i.e., you MUST NOT insert/delete from an array; the array MUST be replaced in its entirety instead). * All parts prior to the last (i.e., the value after the final slash) MUST already exist on the object being patched. * There MUST NOT be two patches in the PatchObject where the pointer of one is the prefix of the pointer of the other, e.g., "alerts/1/offset" and "alerts". The value associated with each pointer determines how to apply that patch: * If null, set to the default value if specified for this property; otherwise, remove the property from the patched object. If the key is not present in the parent, this a no-op. * Anything else: The value to set for this property (this may be a replacement or addition to the object being patched). Any server-set properties MAY be included in the patch if their value is identical to the current server value (before applying the patches to the object). Otherwise, the update MUST be rejected with an "invalidProperties" SetError. This patch definition is designed such that an entire Foo object is also a valid PatchObject. The client may choose to optimise network usage by just sending the diff or may send the whole object; the server processes it the same either way. o destroy: "Id[]|null" A list of ids for Foo objects to permanently delete, or null if no objects are to be destroyed. Each creation, modification, or destruction of an object is considered an atomic unit. It is permissible for the server to commit changes to some objects but not others; however, it MUST NOT only commit part of an update to a single record (e.g., update a "name" property but not a "count" property, if both are supplied in the update object). The final state MUST be valid after the "Foo/set" is finished; however, the server may have to transition through invalid intermediate states (not exposed to the client) while processing the individual create/update/destroy requests. For example, suppose there is a "name" property that must be unique. A single method call could rename an object A => B and simultaneously rename another object B => A. If the final state is valid, this is allowed. Otherwise, each creation, modification, or destruction of an object should be processed sequentially and accepted/rejected based on the current server state. If a create, update, or destroy is rejected, the appropriate error MUST be added to the notCreated/notUpdated/notDestroyed property of the response, and the server MUST continue to the next create/update/ destroy. It does not terminate the method. If an id given cannot be found, the update or destroy MUST be rejected with a "notFound" set error. The server MAY skip an update (rejecting it with a "willDestroy" SetError) if that object is destroyed in the same /set request. Some records may hold references to other records (foreign keys). That reference may be set (via create or update) in the same request as the referenced record is created. To do this, the client refers to the new record using its creation id prefixed with a "#". The order of the method calls in the request by the client MUST be such that the record being referenced is created in the same or an earlier call. Thus, the server never has to look ahead. Instead, while processing a request, the server MUST keep a simple map for the duration of the request of creation id to record id for each newly created record, so it can substitute in the correct value if necessary in later method calls. In the case of records with references to the same type, the server MUST order the creates and updates within a single method call so that creates happen before their creation ids are referenced by another create/update/destroy in the same call. Creation ids are not scoped by type but are a single map for all types. A client SHOULD NOT reuse a creation id anywhere in the same API request. If a creation id is reused, the server MUST map the creation id to the most recently created item with that id. To allow easy proxying of API requests, an initial set of creation id to real id values may be passed with a request (see "The Request Object", Section 3.3) and the final state of the map passed out with the response (see "The Response Object", Section 3.4). The response has the following arguments: o accountId: "Id" The id of the account used for the call. o oldState: "String|null" The state string that would have been returned by "Foo/get" before making the requested changes, or null if the server doesn't know what the previous state string was. o newState: "String" The state string that will now be returned by "Foo/get". o created: "Id[Foo]|null" A map of the creation id to an object containing any properties of the created Foo object that were not sent by the client. This includes all server-set properties (such as the "id" in most object types) and any properties that were omitted by the client and thus set to a default by the server. This argument is null if no Foo objects were successfully created. o updated: "Id[Foo|null]|null" The keys in this map are the ids of all Foos that were successfully updated. The value for each id is a Foo object containing any property that changed in a way *not* explicitly requested by the PatchObject sent to the server, or null if none. This lets the client know of any changes to server-set or computed properties. This argument is null if no Foo objects were successfully updated. o destroyed: "Id[]|null" A list of Foo ids for records that were successfully destroyed, or null if none. o notCreated: "Id[SetError]|null" A map of the creation id to a SetError object for each record that failed to be created, or null if all successful. o notUpdated: "Id[SetError]|null" A map of the Foo id to a SetError object for each record that failed to be updated, or null if all successful. o notDestroyed: "Id[SetError]|null" A map of the Foo id to a SetError object for each record that failed to be destroyed, or null if all successful. A *SetError* object has the following properties: o type: "String" The type of error. o description: "String|null" A description of the error to help with debugging that includes an explanation of what the problem was. This is a non-localised string and is not intended to be shown directly to end users. The following SetError types are defined and may be returned for set operations on any record type where appropriate: o "forbidden": (create; update; destroy). The create/update/destroy would violate an ACL or other permissions policy. o "overQuota": (create; update). The create would exceed a server- defined limit on the number or total size of objects of this type. o "tooLarge": (create; update). The create/update would result in an object that exceeds a server-defined limit for the maximum size of a single object of this type. o "rateLimit": (create). Too many objects of this type have been created recently, and a server-defined rate limit has been reached. It may work if tried again later. o "notFound": (update; destroy). The id given to update/destroy cannot be found. o "invalidPatch": (update). The PatchObject given to update the record was not a valid patch (see the patch description). o "willDestroy": (update). The client requested that an object be both updated and destroyed in the same /set request, and the server has decided to therefore ignore the update. o "invalidProperties": (create; update). The record given is invalid in some way. For example: * It contains properties that are invalid according to the type specification of this record type. * It contains a property that may only be set by the server (e.g., "id") and is different to the current value. Note, to allow clients to pass whole objects back, it is not an error to include a server-set property in an update as long as the value is identical to the current value on the server. * There is a reference to another record (foreign key), and the given id does not correspond to a valid record. The SetError object SHOULD also have a property called "properties" of type "String[]" that lists *all* the properties that were invalid. Individual methods MAY specify more specific errors for certain conditions that would otherwise result in an invalidProperties error. If the condition of one of these is met, it MUST be returned instead of the invalidProperties error. o "singleton": (create; destroy). This is a singleton type, so you cannot create another one or destroy the existing one. Other possible SetError types MAY be given in specific method descriptions. Other properties MAY also be present on the SetError object, as described in the relevant methods. The following additional errors may be returned instead of the "Foo/ set" response: "requestTooLarge": The total number of objects to create, update, or destroy exceeds the maximum number the server is willing to process in a single method call. "stateMismatch": An "ifInState" argument was supplied, and it does not match the current state. 5.4. /copy The only way to move Foo records *between* two different accounts is to copy them using the "Foo/copy" method; once the copy has succeeded, delete the original. The "onSuccessDestroyOriginal" argument allows you to try to do this in one method call; however, note that the two different actions are not atomic, so it is possible for the copy to succeed but the original not to be destroyed for some reason. The copy is conceptually in three phases: 1. Reading the current values from the "from" account. 2. Writing the new copies to the other account. 3. Destroying the originals in the "from" account, if requested. Data may change in between phases due to concurrent requests. The "Foo/copy" method takes the following arguments: o fromAccountId: "Id" The id of the account to copy records from. o ifFromInState: "String|null" This is a state string as returned by the "Foo/get" method. If supplied, the string must match the current state of the account referenced by the fromAccountId when reading the data to be copied; otherwise, the method will be aborted and a "stateMismatch" error returned. If null, the data will be read from the current state. o accountId: "Id" The id of the account to copy records to. This MUST be different to the "fromAccountId". o ifInState: "String|null" This is a state string as returned by the "Foo/get" method. If supplied, the string must match the current state of the account referenced by the accountId; otherwise, the method will be aborted and a "stateMismatch" error returned. If null, any changes will be applied to the current state. o create: "Id[Foo]" A map of the *creation id* to a Foo object. The Foo object MUST contain an "id" property, which is the id (in the fromAccount) of the record to be copied. When creating the copy, any other properties included are used instead of the current value for that property on the original. o onSuccessDestroyOriginal: "Boolean" (default: false) If true, an attempt will be made to destroy the original records that were successfully copied: after emitting the "Foo/copy" response, but before processing the next method, the server MUST make a single call to "Foo/set" to destroy the original of each successfully copied record; the output of this is added to the responses as normal, to be returned to the client. o destroyFromIfInState: "String|null" This argument is passed on as the "ifInState" argument to the implicit "Foo/set" call, if made at the end of this request to destroy the originals that were successfully copied. Each record copy is considered an atomic unit that may succeed or fail individually. The response has the following arguments: o fromAccountId: "Id" The id of the account records were copied from. o accountId: "Id" The id of the account records were copied to. o oldState: "String|null" The state string that would have been returned by "Foo/get" on the account records that were copied to before making the requested changes, or null if the server doesn't know what the previous state string was. o newState: "String" The state string that will now be returned by "Foo/get" on the account records were copied to. o created: "Id[Foo]|null" A map of the creation id to an object containing any properties of the copied Foo object that are set by the server (such as the "id" in most object types; note, the id is likely to be different to the id of the object in the account it was copied from). This argument is null if no Foo objects were successfully copied. o notCreated: "Id[SetError]|null" A map of the creation id to a SetError object for each record that failed to be copied, or null if none. The SetError may be any of the standard set errors returned for a create or update. In addition, the following SetError is defined: "alreadyExists": The server forbids duplicates, and the record already exists in the target account. An "existingId" property of type "Id" MUST be included on the SetError object with the id of the existing record. The following additional errors may be returned instead of the "Foo/ copy" response: "fromAccountNotFound": The "fromAccountId" does not correspond to a valid account. "fromAccountNotSupportedByMethod": The "fromAccountId" given corresponds to a valid account, but the account does not support this data type. "stateMismatch": An "ifInState" argument was supplied and it does not match the current state, or an "ifFromInState" argument was supplied and it does not match the current state in the from account. 5.5. /query For data sets where the total amount of data is expected to be very small, clients can just fetch the complete set of data and then do any sorting/filtering locally. However, for large data sets (e.g., multi-gigabyte mailboxes), the client needs to be able to search/sort/window the data type on the server. A query on the set of Foos in an account is made by calling "Foo/ query". This takes a number of arguments to determine which records to include, how they should be sorted, and which part of the result should be returned (the full list may be *very* long). The result is returned as a list of Foo ids. A call to "Foo/query" takes the following arguments: o accountId: "Id" The id of the account to use. o filter: "FilterOperator|FilterCondition|null" Determines the set of Foos returned in the results. If null, all objects in the account of this type are included in the results. A *FilterOperator* object has the following properties: * operator: "String" This MUST be one of the following strings: + "AND": All of the conditions must match for the filter to match. + "OR": At least one of the conditions must match for the filter to match. + "NOT": None of the conditions must match for the filter to match. * conditions: "(FilterOperator|FilterCondition)[]" The conditions to evaluate against each record. A *FilterCondition* is an "object" whose allowed properties and semantics depend on the data type and is defined in the /query method specification for that type. It MUST NOT have an "operator" property. o sort: "Comparator[]|null" Lists the names of properties to compare between two Foo records, and how to compare them, to determine which comes first in the sort. If two Foo records have an identical value for the first comparator, the next comparator will be considered, and so on. If all comparators are the same (this includes the case where an empty array or null is given as the "sort" argument), the sort order is server dependent, but it MUST be stable between calls to "Foo/query". A *Comparator* has the following properties: * property: "String" The name of the property on the Foo objects to compare. * isAscending: "Boolean" (optional; default: true) If true, sort in ascending order. If false, reverse the comparator's results to sort in descending order. * collation: "String" (optional; default is server-dependent) The identifier, as registered in the collation registry defined in [RFC4790], for the algorithm to use when comparing the order of strings. The algorithms the server supports are advertised in the capabilities object returned with the Session object (see Section 2). If omitted, the default algorithm is server dependent, but: 1. It MUST be unicode-aware. 2. It MAY be selected based on an Accept-Language header in the request (as defined in [RFC7231], Section 5.3.5) or out-of-band information about the user's language/locale. 3. It SHOULD be case insensitive where such a concept makes sense for a language/locale. Where the user's language is unknown, it is RECOMMENDED to follow the advice in Section 5.2.3 of [RFC8264]. The "i;unicode-casemap" collation [RFC5051] and the Unicode Collation Algorithm (<http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr10/>) are two examples that fulfil these criterion and provide reasonable behaviour for a large number of languages. When the property being compared is not a string, the "collation" property is ignored, and the following comparison rules apply based on the type. In ascending order: + "Boolean": false comes before true. + "Number": A lower number comes before a higher number. + "Date"/"UTCDate": The earlier date comes first. The Comparator object may also have additional properties as required for specific sort operations defined in a type's /query method. o position: "Int" (default: 0) The zero-based index of the first id in the full list of results to return. If a negative value is given, it is an offset from the end of the list. Specifically, the negative value MUST be added to the total number of results given the filter, and if still negative, it's clamped to "0". This is now the zero-based index of the first id to return. If the index is greater than or equal to the total number of objects in the results list, then the "ids" array in the response will be empty, but this is not an error. o anchor: "Id|null" A Foo id. If supplied, the "position" argument is ignored. The index of this id in the results will be used in combination with the "anchorOffset" argument to determine the index of the first result to return (see below for more details). o anchorOffset: "Int" (default: 0) The index of the first result to return relative to the index of the anchor, if an anchor is given. This MAY be negative. For example, "-1" means the Foo immediately preceding the anchor is the first result in the list returned (see below for more details). o limit: "UnsignedInt|null" The maximum number of results to return. If null, no limit presumed. The server MAY choose to enforce a maximum "limit" argument. In this case, if a greater value is given (or if it is null), the limit is clamped to the maximum; the new limit is returned with the response so the client is aware. If a negative value is given, the call MUST be rejected with an "invalidArguments" error. o calculateTotal: "Boolean" (default: false) Does the client wish to know the total number of results in the query? This may be slow and expensive for servers to calculate, particularly with complex filters, so clients should take care to only request the total when needed. If an "anchor" argument is given, the anchor is looked for in the results after filtering and sorting. If found, the "anchorOffset" is then added to its index. If the resulting index is now negative, it is clamped to 0. This index is now used exactly as though it were supplied as the "position" argument. If the anchor is not found, the call is rejected with an "anchorNotFound" error. If an "anchor" is specified, any position argument supplied by the client MUST be ignored. If no "anchor" is supplied, any "anchorOffset" argument MUST be ignored. A client can use "anchor" instead of "position" to find the index of an id within a large set of results. The response has the following arguments: o accountId: "Id" The id of the account used for the call. o queryState: "String" A string encoding the current state of the query on the server. This string MUST change if the results of the query (i.e., the matching ids and their sort order) have changed. The queryState string MAY change if something has changed on the server, which means the results may have changed but the server doesn't know for sure. The queryState string only represents the ordered list of ids that match the particular query (including its sort/filter). There is no requirement for it to change if a property on an object matching the query changes but the query results are unaffected (indeed, it is more efficient if the queryState string does not change in this case). The queryState string only has meaning when compared to future responses to a query with the same type/sort/ filter or when used with /queryChanges to fetch changes. Should a client receive back a response with a different queryState string to a previous call, it MUST either throw away the currently cached query and fetch it again (note, this does not require fetching the records again, just the list of ids) or call "Foo/queryChanges" to get the difference. o canCalculateChanges: "Boolean" This is true if the server supports calling "Foo/queryChanges" with these "filter"/"sort" parameters. Note, this does not guarantee that the "Foo/queryChanges" call will succeed, as it may only be possible for a limited time afterwards due to server internal implementation details. o position: "UnsignedInt" The zero-based index of the first result in the "ids" array within the complete list of query results. o ids: "Id[]" The list of ids for each Foo in the query results, starting at the index given by the "position" argument of this response and continuing until it hits the end of the results or reaches the "limit" number of ids. If "position" is >= "total", this MUST be the empty list. o total: "UnsignedInt" (only if requested) The total number of Foos in the results (given the "filter"). This argument MUST be omitted if the "calculateTotal" request argument is not true. o limit: "UnsignedInt" (if set by the server) The limit enforced by the server on the maximum number of results to return. This is only returned if the server set a limit or used a different limit than that given in the request. The following additional errors may be returned instead of the "Foo/ query" response: "anchorNotFound": An anchor argument was supplied, but it cannot be found in the results of the query. "unsupportedSort": The "sort" is syntactically valid, but it includes a property the server does not support sorting on or a collation method it does not recognise. "unsupportedFilter": The "filter" is syntactically valid, but the server cannot process it. If the filter was the result of a user's search input, the client SHOULD suggest that the user simplify their search. 5.6. /queryChanges The "Foo/queryChanges" method allows a client to efficiently update the state of a cached query to match the new state on the server. It takes the following arguments: o accountId: "Id" The id of the account to use. o filter: "FilterOperator|FilterCondition|null" The filter argument that was used with "Foo/query". o sort: "Comparator[]|null" The sort argument that was used with "Foo/query". o sinceQueryState: "String" The current state of the query in the client. This is the string that was returned as the "queryState" argument in the "Foo/query" response with the same sort/filter. The server will return the changes made to the query since this state. o maxChanges: "UnsignedInt|null" The maximum number of changes to return in the response. See error descriptions below for more details. o upToId: "Id|null" The last (highest-index) id the client currently has cached from the query results. When there are a large number of results, in a common case, the client may have only downloaded and cached a small subset from the beginning of the results. If the sort and filter are both only on immutable properties, this allows the server to omit changes after this point in the results, which can significantly increase efficiency. If they are not immutable, this argument is ignored. o calculateTotal: "Boolean" (default: false) Does the client wish to know the total number of results now in the query? This may be slow and expensive for servers to calculate, particularly with complex filters, so clients should take care to only request the total when needed. The response has the following arguments: o accountId: "Id" The id of the account used for the call. o oldQueryState: "String" This is the "sinceQueryState" argument echoed back; that is, the state from which the server is returning changes. o newQueryState: "String" This is the state the query will be in after applying the set of changes to the old state. o total: "UnsignedInt" (only if requested) The total number of Foos in the results (given the "filter"). This argument MUST be omitted if the "calculateTotal" request argument is not true. o removed: "Id[]" The "id" for every Foo that was in the query results in the old state and that is not in the results in the new state. If the server cannot calculate this exactly, the server MAY return the ids of extra Foos in addition that may have been in the old results but are not in the new results. If the sort and filter are both only on immutable properties and an "upToId" is supplied and exists in the results, any ids that were removed but have a higher index than "upToId" SHOULD be omitted. If the "filter" or "sort" includes a mutable property, the server MUST include all Foos in the current results for which this property may have changed. The position of these may have moved in the results, so they must be reinserted by the client to ensure its query cache is correct. o added: "AddedItem[]" The id and index in the query results (in the new state) for every Foo that has been added to the results since the old state AND every Foo in the current results that was included in the "removed" array (due to a filter or sort based upon a mutable property). If the sort and filter are both only on immutable properties and an "upToId" is supplied and exists in the results, any ids that were added but have a higher index than "upToId" SHOULD be omitted. The array MUST be sorted in order of index, with the lowest index first. An *AddedItem* object has the following properties: * id: "Id" * index: "UnsignedInt" The result of this is that if the client has a cached sparse array of Foo ids corresponding to the results in the old state, then: fooIds = [ "id1", "id2", null, null, "id3", "id4", null, null, null ] If it *splices out* all ids in the removed array that it has in its cached results, then: removed = [ "id2", "id31", ... ]; fooIds => [ "id1", null, null, "id3", "id4", null, null, null ] and *splices in* (one by one in order, starting with the lowest index) all of the ids in the added array: added = [{ id: "id5", index: 0, ... }]; fooIds => [ "id5", "id1", null, null, "id3", "id4", null, null, null ] and *truncates* or *extends* to the new total length, then the results will now be in the new state. Note: splicing in adds the item at the given index, incrementing the index of all items previously at that or a higher index. Splicing out is the inverse, removing the item and decrementing the index of every item after it in the array. The following additional errors may be returned instead of the "Foo/ queryChanges" response: "tooManyChanges": There are more changes than the client's "maxChanges" argument. Each item in the removed or added array is considered to be one change. The client may retry with higher max changes or invalidate its cache of the query results. "cannotCalculateChanges": The server cannot calculate the changes from the queryState string given by the client, usually due to the client's state being too old. The client MUST invalidate its cache of the query results. 5.7. Examples Suppose we have a type *Todo* with the following properties: o id: "Id" (immutable; server-set) The id of the object. o title: "String" A brief summary of what is to be done. o keywords: "String[Boolean]" (default: {}) A set of keywords that apply to the Todo. The set is represented as an object, with the keys being the "keywords". The value for each key in the object MUST be true. (This format allows you to update an individual key using patch syntax rather than having to update the whole set of keywords as one, which a "String[]" representation would require.) o neuralNetworkTimeEstimation: "Number" (server-set) The title and keywords are fed into the server's state-of-the-art neural network to get an estimation of how long this Todo will take, in seconds. o subTodoIds: "Id[]|null" The ids of a list of other Todos to complete as part of this Todo. Suppose also that all the standard methods are defined for this type and the FilterCondition object supports a "hasKeyword" property to match Todos with the given keyword. A client might want to display the list of Todos with either a "music" keyword or a "video" keyword, so it makes the following method call: [[ "Todo/query", { "accountId": "x", "filter": { "operator": "OR", "conditions": [ { "hasKeyword": "music" }, { "hasKeyword": "video" } ] }, "sort": [{ "property": "title" }], "position": 0, "limit": 10 }, "0" ], [ "Todo/get", { "accountId": "x", "#ids": { "resultOf": "0", "name": "Todo/query", "path": "/ids" } }, "1" ]] This would query the server for the set of Todos with a keyword of either "music" or "video", sorted by title, and limited to the first 10 results. It fetches the full object for each of these Todos using back-references to reference the result of the query. The response might look something like: [[ "Todo/query", { "accountId": "x", "queryState": "y13213", "canCalculateChanges": true, "position": 0, "ids": [ "a", "b", "c", "d", "e", "f", "g", "h", "i", "j" ] }, "0" ], [ "Todo/get", { "accountId": "x", "state": "10324", "list": [{ "id": "a", "title": "Practise Piano", "keywords": { "music": true, "beethoven": true, "mozart": true, "liszt": true, "rachmaninov": true }, "neuralNetworkTimeEstimation": 3600 }, { "id": "b", "title": "Watch Daft Punk music video", "keywords": { "music": true, "video": true, "trance": true }, "neuralNetworkTimeEstimation": 18000 }, ... ] }, "1" ]] Now, suppose the user adds a keyword "chopin" and removes the keyword "mozart" from the "Practise Piano" task. The client may send the whole object to the server, as this is a valid PatchObject: [[ "Todo/set", { "accountId": "x", "ifInState": "10324", "update": { "a": { "id": "a", "title": "Practise Piano", "keywords": { "music": true, "beethoven": true, "chopin": true, "liszt": true, "rachmaninov": true }, "neuralNetworkTimeEstimation": 360 } } }, "0" ]] or it may send a minimal patch: [[ "Todo/set", { "accountId": "x", "ifInState": "10324", "update": { "a": { "keywords/chopin": true, "keywords/mozart": null } } }, "0" ]] The effect is exactly the same on the server in either case, and presuming the server is still in state "10324", it will probably return success: [[ "Todo/set", { "accountId": "x", "oldState": "10324", "newState": "10329", "updated": { "a": { "neuralNetworkTimeEstimation": 5400 } } }, "0" ]] The server changed the "neuralNetworkTimeEstimation" property on the object as part of this change; as this changed in a way *not* explicitly requested by the PatchObject sent to the server, it is returned with the "updated" confirmation. Let us now add a sub-Todo to our new "Practise Piano" Todo. In this example, we can see the use of a reference to a creation id to allow us to set a foreign key reference to a record created in the same request: [[ "Todo/set", { "accountId": "x", "create": { "k15": { "title": "Warm up with scales" } }, "update": { "a": { "subTodoIds": [ "#k15" ] } } }, "0" ]] Now, suppose another user deleted the "Listen to Daft Punk" Todo. The first user will receive a push notification (see Section 7) with the changed state string for the "Todo" type. Since the new string does not match its current state, it knows it needs to check for updates. It may make a request like: [[ "Todo/changes", { "accountId": "x", "sinceState": "10324", "maxChanges": 50 }, "0" ], [ "Todo/queryChanges", { "accountId": "x", "filter": { "operator": "OR", "conditions": [ { "hasKeyword": "music" }, { "hasKeyword": "video" } ] }, "sort": [{ "property": "title" }], "sinceQueryState": "y13213", "maxChanges": 50 }, "1" ]] and receive in response: [[ "Todo/changes", { "accountId": "x", "oldState": "10324", "newState": "871903", "hasMoreChanges": false, "created": [], "updated": [], "destroyed": ["b"] }, "0" ], [ "Todo/queryChanges", { "accountId": "x", "oldQueryState": "y13213", "newQueryState": "y13218", "removed": ["b"], "added": null }, "1" ]] Suppose the user has access to another account "y", for example, a team account shared between multiple users. To move an existing Todo from account "x", the client would call: [[ "Todo/copy", { "fromAccountId": "x", "accountId": "y", "create": { "k5122": { "id": "a" } }, "onSuccessDestroyOriginal": true }, "0" ]] The server successfully copies the Todo to a new account (where it receives a new id) and deletes the original. Due to the implicit call to "Todo/set", there are two responses to the single method call, both with the same method call id: [[ "Todo/copy", { "fromAccountId": "x", "accountId": "y", "created": { "k5122": { "id": "DAf97" } }, "oldState": "c1d64ecb038c", "newState": "33844835152b" }, "0" ], [ "Todo/set", { "accountId": "x", "oldState": "871903", "newState": "871909", "destroyed": [ "a" ], ... }, "0" ]] 5.8. Proxy Considerations JMAP has been designed to allow an API endpoint to easily proxy through to one or more JMAP servers. This may be useful for load balancing, augmenting capabilities, or presenting a single endpoint to accounts hosted on different JMAP servers (splitting the request based on each method's "accountId" argument). The proxy need only understand the general structure of a JMAP Request object; it does not need to know anything specifically about the methods and arguments it will pass through to other servers. If splitting up the methods in a request to call them on different backend servers, the proxy must do two things to ensure back- references and creation-id references resolve the same as if the entire request were processed on a single server: 1. It must pass a "createdIds" property with each subrequest. If this is not given by the client, an empty object should be used for the first subrequest. The "createdIds" property of each subresponse should be passed on in the next subrequest. 2. It must resolve back-references to previous method results that were processed on a different server. This is a relatively simple syntactic substitution, described in Section 3.7. When splitting a request based on accountId, proxy implementors do need to be aware of "/copy" methods that copy between accounts. If the accounts are on different servers, the proxy will have to implement this functionality directly. 6. Binary Data Binary data is referenced by a *blobId* in JMAP and uploaded/ downloaded separately to the core API. The blobId solely represents the raw bytes of data, not any associated metadata such as a file name or content type. Such metadata is stored alongside the blobId in the object referencing it. The data represented by a blobId is immutable. Any blobId that exists within an account may be used when creating/ updating another object in that account. For example, an Email type may have a blobId that represents the object in Internet Message Format [RFC5322]. A client could create a new Email object with an attachment and use this blobId, in effect attaching the old message to the new one. Similarly, it could attach any existing attachment of an old message without having to download and upload it again. When the client uses a blobId in a create/update, the server MAY assign a new blobId to refer to the same binary data within the new/ updated object. If it does so, it MUST return any properties that contain a changed blobId in the created/updated response, so the client gets the new ids. A blob that is not referenced by a JMAP object (e.g., as a message attachment) MAY be deleted by the server to free up resources. Uploads (see below) are initially unreferenced blobs. To ensure interoperability: o The server SHOULD use a separate quota for unreferenced blobs to the account's usual quota. In the case of shared accounts, this quota SHOULD be separate per user. o This quota SHOULD be at least the maximum total size that a single object can reference on this server. For example, if supporting JMAP Mail, this should be at least the maximum total attachments size for a message. o When an upload would take the user over quota, the server MUST delete unreferenced blobs in date order, oldest first, until there is room for the new blob. o Except where quota restrictions force early deletion, an unreferenced blob MUST NOT be deleted for at least 1 hour from the time of upload; if reuploaded, the same blobId MAY be returned, but this SHOULD reset the expiry time. o A blob MUST NOT be deleted during the method call that removed the last reference, so that a client can issue a create and a destroy that both reference the blob within the same method call. 6.1. Uploading Binary Data There is a single endpoint that handles all file uploads for an account, regardless of what they are to be used for. The Session object (see Section 2) has an "uploadUrl" property in URI Template (level 1) format [RFC6570], which MUST contain a variable called "accountId". The client may use this template in combination with an "accountId" to get the URL of the file upload resource. To upload a file, the client submits an authenticated POST request to the file upload resource. A successful request MUST return a single JSON object with the following properties as the response: o accountId: "Id" The id of the account used for the call. o blobId: "Id" The id representing the binary data uploaded. The data for this id is immutable. The id *only* refers to the binary data, not any metadata. o type: "String" The media type of the file (as specified in [RFC6838], Section 4.2) as set in the Content-Type header of the upload HTTP request. o size: "UnsignedInt" The size of the file in octets. If identical binary content to an existing blob in the account is uploaded, the existing blobId MAY be returned. Clients should use the blobId returned in a timely manner. Under rare circumstances, the server may have deleted the blob before the client uses it; the client should keep a reference to the local file so it can upload it again in such a situation. When an HTTP error response is returned to the client, the server SHOULD return a JSON "problem details" object as the response body, as per [RFC7807]. As access controls are often determined by the object holding the reference to a blob, unreferenced blobs MUST only be accessible to the uploader, even in shared accounts. 6.2. Downloading Binary Data The Session object (see Section 2) has a "downloadUrl" property, which is in URI Template (level 1) format [RFC6570]. The URL MUST contain variables called "accountId", "blobId", "type", and "name". To download a file, the client makes an authenticated GET request to the download URL with the appropriate variables substituted in: o "accountId": The id of the account to which the record with the blobId belongs. o "blobId": The blobId representing the data of the file to download. o "type": The type for the server to set in the "Content-Type" header of the response; the blobId only represents the binary data and does not have a content-type innately associated with it. o "name": The name for the file; the server MUST return this as the filename if it sets a "Content-Disposition" header. As the data for a particular blobId is immutable, and thus the response in the generated download URL is too, implementors are recommended to set long cache times and use the "immutable" Cache- Control extension [RFC8246] for successful responses, for example, "Cache-Control: private, immutable, max-age=31536000". When an HTTP error response is returned to the client, the server SHOULD return a JSON "problem details" object as the response body, as per [RFC7807]. 6.3. Blob/copy Binary data may be copied *between* two different accounts using the "Blob/copy" method rather than having to download and then reupload on the client. The "Blob/copy" method takes the following arguments: o fromAccountId: "Id" The id of the account to copy blobs from. o accountId: "Id" The id of the account to copy blobs to. o blobIds: "Id[]" A list of ids of blobs to copy to the other account. The response has the following arguments: o fromAccountId: "Id" The id of the account blobs were copied from. o accountId: "Id" The id of the account blobs were copied to. o copied: "Id[Id]|null" A map of the blobId in the fromAccount to the id for the blob in the account it was copied to, or null if none were successfully copied. o notCopied: "Id[SetError]|null" A map of blobId to a SetError object for each blob that failed to be copied, or null if none. The SetError may be any of the standard set errors that may be returned for a create, as defined in Section 5.3. In addition, the "notFound" SetError error may be returned if the blobId to be copied cannot be found. The following additional method-level error may be returned instead of the "Blob/copy" response: "fromAccountNotFound": The "fromAccountId" included with the request does not correspond to a valid account. 7. Push Push notifications allow clients to efficiently update (almost) instantly to stay in sync with data changes on the server. The general model for push is simple and sends minimal data over the push channel: just enough for the client to know whether it needs to resync. The format allows multiple changes to be coalesced into a single push update and the frequency of pushes to be rate limited by the server. It doesn't matter if some push events are dropped before they reach the client; the next time it gets/sets any records of a changed type, it will discover the data has changed and still sync all changes. There are two different mechanisms by which a client can receive push notifications, to allow for the different environments in which a client may exist. An event source resource (see Section 7.3) allows clients that can hold transport connections open to receive push notifications directly from the JMAP server. This is simple and avoids third parties, but it is often not feasible on constrained platforms such as mobile devices. Alternatively, clients can make use of any push service supported by their environment. A URL for the push service is registered with the JMAP server (see Section 7.2); the server then POSTs each notification to that URL. The push service is then responsible for routing these to the client. 7.1. The StateChange Object When something changes on the server, the server pushes a StateChange object to the client. A *StateChange* object has the following properties: o @type: "String" This MUST be the string "StateChange". o changed: "Id[TypeState]" A map of an "account id" to an object encoding the state of data types that have changed for that account since the last StateChange object was pushed, for each of the accounts to which the user has access and for which something has changed. A *TypeState* object is a map. The keys are the type name "Foo" (e.g., "Mailbox" or "Email"), and the value is the "state" property that would currently be returned by a call to "Foo/get". The client can compare the new state strings with its current values to see whether it has the current data for these types. If not, the changes can then be efficiently fetched in a single standard API request (using the /changes type methods). 7.1.1. Example In this example, the server has amalgamated a few changes together across two different accounts the user has access to, before pushing the following StateChange object to the client: { "@type": "StateChange", "changed": { "a3123": { "Email": "d35ecb040aab", "EmailDelivery": "428d565f2440", "CalendarEvent": "87accfac587a" }, "a43461d": { "Mailbox": "0af7a512ce70", "CalendarEvent": "7a4297cecd76" } } } The client can compare the state strings with its current state for the Email, CalendarEvent, etc., object types in the appropriate accounts to see if it needs to fetch changes. If the client is itself making changes, it may receive a StateChange object while the /set API call is in flight. It can wait until the call completes and then compare if the new state string after the /set is the same as was pushed in the StateChange object; if so, and the old state of the /set response matches the client's previous state, it does not need to waste a request asking for changes it already knows. 7.2. PushSubscription Clients may create a PushSubscription to register a URL with the JMAP server. The JMAP server will then make an HTTP POST request to this URL for each push notification it wishes to send to the client. As a push subscription causes the JMAP server to make a number of requests to a previously unknown endpoint, it can be used as a vector for launching a denial-of-service attack. To prevent this, when a subscription is created, the JMAP server immediately sends a PushVerification object to that URL (see Section 7.2.2). The JMAP server MUST NOT make any further requests to the URL until the client receives the push and updates the subscription with the correct verification code. A *PushSubscription* object has the following properties: o id: "Id" (immutable; server-set) The id of the push subscription. o deviceClientId: "String" (immutable) An id that uniquely identifies the client + device it is running on. The purpose of this is to allow clients to identify which PushSubscription objects they created even if they lose their local state, so they can revoke or update them. This string MUST be different on different devices and be different from apps from other vendors. It SHOULD be easy to regenerate and not depend on persisted state. It is RECOMMENDED to use a secure hash of a string that contains: 1. A unique identifier associated with the device where the JMAP client is running, normally supplied by the device's operating system. 2. A custom vendor/app id, including a domain controlled by the vendor of the JMAP client. To protect the privacy of the user, the deviceClientId id MUST NOT contain an unobfuscated device id. o url: "String" (immutable) An absolute URL where the JMAP server will POST the data for the push message. This MUST begin with "https://". o keys: "Object|null" (immutable) Client-generated encryption keys. If supplied, the server MUST use them as specified in [RFC8291] to encrypt all data sent to the push subscription. The object MUST have the following properties: * p256dh: "String" The P-256 Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) public key as described in [RFC8291], encoded in URL-safe base64 representation as defined in [RFC4648]. * auth: "String" The authentication secret as described in [RFC8291], encoded in URL-safe base64 representation as defined in [RFC4648]. o verificationCode: "String|null" This MUST be null (or omitted) when the subscription is created. The JMAP server then generates a verification code and sends it in a push message, and the client updates the PushSubscription object with the code; see Section 7.2.2 for details. o expires: "UTCDate|null" The time this push subscription expires. If specified, the JMAP server MUST NOT make further requests to this resource after this time. It MAY automatically destroy the push subscription at or after this time. The server MAY choose to set an expiry if none is given by the client or modify the expiry time given by the client to a shorter duration. o types: "String[]|null" A list of types the client is interested in (using the same names as the keys in the TypeState object defined in the previous section). A StateChange notification will only be sent if the data for one of these types changes. Other types are omitted from the TypeState object. If null, changes will be pushed for all types. The POST request MUST have a content type of "application/json" and contain the UTF-8 JSON-encoded object as the body. The request MUST have a "TTL" header and MAY have "Urgency" and/or "Topic" headers, as specified in Section 5 of [RFC8030]. The JMAP server is expected to understand and handle HTTP status responses in a reasonable manner. A "429" (Too Many Requests) response MUST cause the JMAP server to reduce the frequency of pushes; the JMAP push structure allows multiple changes to be coalesced into a single minimal StateChange object. See the security considerations in Section 8.6 for a discussion of the risks in connecting to unknown servers. The JMAP server acts as an application server as defined in [RFC8030]. A client MAY use the rest of [RFC8030] in combination with its own push service to form a complete end-to-end solution, or it MAY rely on alternative mechanisms to ensure the delivery of the pushed data after it leaves the JMAP server. The push subscription is tied to the credentials used to authenticate the API request that created it. Should these credentials expire or be revoked, the push subscription MUST be destroyed by the JMAP server. Only subscriptions created by these credentials are returned when the client fetches existing subscriptions. When these credentials have their own expiry (i.e., it is a session with a timeout), the server SHOULD NOT set or bound the expiry time for the push subscription given by the client but MUST expire it when the session expires. When these credentials are not time bounded (e.g., Basic authentication [RFC7617]), the server SHOULD set an expiry time for the push subscription if none is given and limit the expiry time if set too far in the future. This maximum expiry time MUST be at least 48 hours in the future and SHOULD be at least 7 days in the future. An app running on a mobile device may only be able to refresh the push subscription lifetime when it is in the foreground, so this gives a reasonable time frame to allow this to happen. In the case of separate access and refresh credentials, as in Oauth 2.0 [RFC6749], the server SHOULD tie the push subscription to the validity of the refresh token rather than the access token and behave according to whether this is time-limited or not. When a push subscription is destroyed, the server MUST securely erase the URL and encryption keys from memory and storage as soon as possible. 7.2.1. PushSubscription/get Standard /get method as described in Section 5.1, except it does *not* take or return an "accountId" argument, as push subscriptions are not tied to specific accounts. It also does *not* return a "state" argument. The "ids" argument may be null to fetch all at once. The server MUST only return push subscriptions that were created using the same authentication credentials as for this "PushSubscription/get" request. As the "url" and "keys" properties may contain data that is private to a particular device, the values for these properties MUST NOT be returned. If the "properties" argument is null or omitted, the server MUST default to all properties excluding these two. If one of them is explicitly requested, the method call MUST be rejected with a "forbidden" error. 7.2.2. PushSubscription/set Standard /set method as described in Section 5.3, except it does *not* take or return an "accountId" argument, as push subscriptions are not tied to specific accounts. It also does *not* take an "ifInState" argument or return "oldState" or "newState" arguments. The "url" and "keys" properties are immutable; if the client wishes to change these, it must destroy the current push subscription and create a new one. When a PushSubscription is created, the server MUST immediately push a *PushVerification* object to the URL. It has the following properties: o @type: "String" This MUST be the string "PushVerification". o pushSubscriptionId: "String" The id of the push subscription that was created. o verificationCode: "String" The verification code to add to the push subscription. This MUST contain sufficient entropy to avoid the client being able to guess the code via brute force. The client MUST update the push subscription with the correct verification code before the server makes any further requests to the subscription's URL. Attempts to update the subscription with an invalid verification code MUST be rejected by the server with an "invalidProperties" SetError. The client may update the "expires" property to extend (or, less commonly, shorten) the lifetime of a push subscription. The server MAY modify the proposed new expiry time to enforce server-defined limits. Extending the lifetime does not require the subscription to be verified again. Clients SHOULD NOT update or destroy a push subscription that they did not create (i.e., has a "deviceClientId" that they do not recognise). 7.2.3. Example At "2018-07-06T02:14:29Z", a client with deviceClientId "a889-ffea- 910" fetches the set of push subscriptions currently on the server, making an API request with: [[ "PushSubscription/get", { "ids": null }, "0" ]] Which returns: [[ "PushSubscription/get", { "list": [{ "id": "e50b2c1d-9553-41a3-b0a7-a7d26b599ee1", "deviceClientId": "b37ff8001ca0", "verificationCode": "b210ef734fe5f439c1ca386421359f7b", "expires": "2018-07-31T00:13:21Z", "types": [ "Todo" ] }, { "id": "f2d0aab5-e976-4e8b-ad4b-b380a5b987e4", "deviceClientId": "X8980fc", "verificationCode": "f3d4618a9ae15c8b7f5582533786d531", "expires": "2018-07-12T05:55:00Z", "types": [ "Mailbox", "Email", "EmailDelivery" ] }], "notFound": [] }, "0" ]] Since neither of the returned push subscription objects have the client's deviceClientId, it knows it does not have a current push subscription active on the server. So it creates one, sending this request: [[ "PushSubscription/set", { "create": { "4f29": { "deviceClientId": "a889-ffea-910", "url": "https://example.com/push/?device=X8980fc&client=12c6d086", "types": null } } }, "0" ]] The server creates the push subscription but limits the expiry time to 7 days in the future, returning this response: [[ "PushSubscription/set", { "created": { "4f29": { "id": "P43dcfa4-1dd4-41ef-9156-2c89b3b19c60", "keys": null, "expires": "2018-07-13T02:14:29Z" } } }, "0" ]] The server also immediately makes a POST request to "https://example.com/push/?device=X8980fc&client=12c6d086" with the data: { "@type": "PushVerification", "pushSubscriptionId": "P43dcfa4-1dd4-41ef-9156-2c89b3b19c60", "verificationCode": "da1f097b11ca17f06424e30bf02bfa67" } The client receives this and updates the subscription with the verification code (note there is a potential race condition here; the client MUST be able to handle receiving the push while the request creating the subscription is still in progress): [[ "PushSubscription/set", { "update": { "P43dcfa4-1dd4-41ef-9156-2c89b3b19c60": { "verificationCode": "da1f097b11ca17f06424e30bf02bfa67" } } }, "0" ]] The server confirms the update was successful and will now make requests to the registered URL when the state changes. Two days later, the client updates the subscription to extend its lifetime, sending this request: [[ "PushSubscription/set", { "update": { "P43dcfa4-1dd4-41ef-9156-2c89b3b19c60": { "expires": "2018-08-13T00:00:00Z" } } }, "0" ]] The server extends the expiry time, but only again to its maximum limit of 7 days in the future, returning this response: [[ "PushSubscription/set", { "updated": { "P43dcfa4-1dd4-41ef-9156-2c89b3b19c60": { "expires": "2018-07-15T02:22:50Z" } } }, "0" ]] 7.3. Event Source Clients that can hold transport connections open can connect directly to the JMAP server to receive push notifications via a "text/event- stream" resource, as described in [EventSource]. This is a long running HTTP request, where the server can push data to the client by appending data without ending the response. When a change occurs in the data on the server, it pushes an event called "state" to any connected clients, with the StateChange object as the data. The server SHOULD also send a new event id that encodes the entire server state visible to the user immediately after sending a "state" event. When a new connection is made to the event-source endpoint, a client following the server-sent events specification will send a Last-Event-ID HTTP header field with the last id it saw, which the server can use to work out whether the client has missed some changes. If so, it SHOULD send these changes immediately on connection. The Session object (see Section 2) has an "eventSourceUrl" property, which is in URI Template (level 1) format [RFC6570]. The URL MUST contain variables called "types", "closeafter", and "ping". To connect to the resource, the client makes an authenticated GET request to the event-source URL with the appropriate variables substituted in: o "types": This MUST be either: * A comma-separated list of type names, e.g., "Email,CalendarEvent". The server MUST only push changes for the types in this list. * The single character: "*". Changes to all types are pushed. o "closeafter": This MUST be one of the following values: * "state": The server MUST end the HTTP response after pushing a state event. This can be used by clients in environments where buffering proxies prevent the pushed data from arriving immediately, or indeed at all, when operating in the usual mode. * "no": The connection is persisted by the server as a standard event-source resource. o "ping": A positive integer value representing a length of time in seconds, e.g., "300". If non-zero, the server MUST send an event called "ping" whenever this time elapses since the previous event was sent. This MUST NOT set a new event id. If the value is "0", the server MUST NOT send ping events. The server MAY modify a requested ping interval to be subject to a minimum and/or maximum value. For interoperability, servers MUST NOT have a minimum allowed value higher than 30 or a maximum allowed value less than 300. The data for the ping event MUST be a JSON object containing an "interval" property, the value (type "UnsignedInt") being the interval in seconds the server is using to send pings (this may be different to the requested value if the server clamped it to be within a min/max value). Clients can monitor for the ping event to help determine when the closeafter mode may be required. A client MAY hold open multiple connections to the event-source resource, although it SHOULD try to use a single connection for efficiency. 8. Security Considerations 8.1. Transport Confidentiality To ensure the confidentiality and integrity of data sent and received via JMAP, all requests MUST use TLS 1.2 [RFC5246] [RFC8446] or later, following the recommendations in [RFC7525]. Servers SHOULD support TLS 1.3 [RFC8446] or later. Clients MUST validate TLS certificate chains to protect against man-in-the-middle attacks [RFC5280]. 8.2. Authentication Scheme A number of HTTP authentication schemes have been standardised (see <https://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes/>). Servers should take care to assess the security characteristics of different schemes in relation to their needs when deciding what to implement. Use of the Basic authentication scheme is NOT RECOMMENDED. Services that choose to use it are strongly recommended to require generation of a unique "app password" via some external mechanism for each client they wish to connect. This allows connections from different devices to be differentiated by the server and access to be individually revoked. 8.3. Service Autodiscovery Unless secured by something like DNSSEC, autodiscovery of server details using SRV DNS records is vulnerable to a DNS poisoning attack, which can lead to the client talking to an attacker's server instead of the real JMAP server. The attacker may then intercept requests to execute man-in-the-middle attacks and, depending on the authentication scheme, steal credentials to generate its own requests. Clients that do not support SRV lookups are likely to try just using the "/.well-known/jmap" path directly against the domain of the username over HTTPS. Servers SHOULD ensure this path resolves or redirects to the correct JMAP Session resource to allow this to work. If this is not feasible, servers MUST ensure this path cannot be controlled by an attacker, as again it may be used to steal credentials. 8.4. JSON Parsing The Security Considerations of [RFC8259] apply to the use of JSON as the data interchange format. As for any serialization format, parsers need to thoroughly check the syntax of the supplied data. JSON uses opening and closing tags for several types and structures, and it is possible that the end of the supplied data will be reached when scanning for a matching closing tag; this is an error condition, and implementations need to stop scanning at the end of the supplied data. JSON also uses a string encoding with some escape sequences to encode special characters within a string. Care is needed when processing these escape sequences to ensure that they are fully formed before the special processing is triggered, with special care taken when the escape sequences appear adjacent to other (non-escaped) special characters or adjacent to the end of data (as in the previous paragraph). If parsing JSON into a non-textual structured data format, implementations may need to allocate storage to hold JSON string elements. Since JSON does not use explicit string lengths, the risk of denial of service due to resource exhaustion is small, but implementations may still wish to place limits on the size of allocations they are willing to make in any given context, to avoid untrusted data causing excessive memory allocation. 8.5. Denial of Service A small request may result in a very large response and require considerable work on the server if resource limits are not enforced. JMAP provides mechanisms for advertising and enforcing a wide variety of limits for mitigating this threat, including limits on the number of objects fetched in a single method call, number of methods in a single request, number of concurrent requests, etc. JMAP servers MUST implement sensible limits to mitigate against resource exhaustion attacks. 8.6. Connection to Unknown Push Server When a push subscription is registered, the application server will make POST requests to the given URL. There are a number of security considerations that MUST be considered when implementing this. The server MUST ensure the URL is externally resolvable to avoid server-side request forgery, where the server makes a request to a resource on its internal network. A malicious client may use the push subscription to attempt to flood a third party server with requests, creating a denial-of-service attack and masking the attacker's true identity. There is no guarantee that the URL given to the JMAP server is actually a valid push server. Upon creation of a push subscription, the JMAP server sends a PushVerification object to the URL and MUST NOT send any further requests until the client verifies it has received the initial push. The verification code MUST contain sufficient entropy to prevent the client from being able to verify the subscription via brute force. The verification code does not guarantee the URL is a valid push server, only that the client is able to access the data submitted to it. While the verification step significantly reduces the set of potential targets, there is still a risk that the server is unrelated to the client and being targeted for a denial-of-service attack. The server MUST limit the number of push subscriptions any one user may have to ensure the user cannot cause the server to send a large number of push notifications at once, which could again be used as part of a denial-of-service attack. The rate of creation MUST also be limited to minimise the ability to abuse the verification request as an attack vector. 8.7. Push Encryption When data changes, a small object is pushed with the new state strings for the types that have changed. While the data here is minimal, a passive man-in-the-middle attacker may be able to gain useful information. To ensure confidentiality and integrity, if the push is sent via a third party outside of the control of the client and JMAP server, the client MUST specify encryption keys when establishing the PushSubscription and ignore any push notification received that is not encrypted with those keys. The privacy and security considerations of [RFC8030] and [RFC8291] also apply to the use of the PushSubscription mechanism. As there is no crypto algorithm agility in Web Push Encryption [RFC8291], a new specification will be needed to provide this if new algorithms are required in the future. 8.8. Traffic Analysis While the data is encrypted, a passive observer with the ability to monitor network traffic may be able to glean information from the timing of API requests and push notifications. For example, suppose an email or calendar invitation is sent from User A (hosted on Server X) to User B (hosted on Server Y). If Server X hosts data for many users, a passive observer can see that the two servers connected but does not know who the data was for. However, if a push notification is immediately sent to User B and the attacker can observe this as well, they may reasonably conclude that someone on Server X is connecting to User B. 9. IANA Considerations 9.1. Assignment of jmap Service Name IANA has assigned the 'jmap' service name in the "Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry" [RFC6335]. Service Name: jmap Transport Protocol(s): tcp Assignee: IESG Contact: IETF Chair Description: JSON Meta Application Protocol Reference: RFC 8620 Assignment Notes: This service name was previously assigned under the name "JSON Mail Access Protocol". This has been de-assigned and re-assigned with the approval of the previous assignee. 9.2. Registration of Well-Known URI Suffix for JMAP IANA has registered the following suffix in the "Well-Known URIs" registry for JMAP, as described in [RFC8615]: URI Suffix: jmap Change Controller: IETF Specification Document: RFC 8620, Section 2.2. 9.3. Registration of the jmap URN Sub-namespace IANA has registered the following URN sub-namespace in the "IETF URN Sub-namespace for Registered Protocol Parameter Identifiers" registry within the "Uniform Resource Name (URN) Namespace for IETF Use" registry as described in [RFC3553]. Registered Parameter Identifier: jmap Reference: RFC 8620, Section 9.4 IANA Registry Reference: http://www.iana.org/assignments/jmap 9.4. Creation of "JMAP Capabilities" Registry IANA has created the "JMAP Capabilities" registry as described in Section 2. JMAP capabilities are advertised in the "capabilities" property of the JMAP Session resource. They are used to extend the functionality of a JMAP server. A capability is referenced by a URI. The JMAP capability URI can be a URN starting with "urn:ietf:params:jmap:" plus a unique suffix that is the index value in the jmap URN sub-namespace. Registration of a JMAP capability with another form of URI has no impact on the jmap URN sub-namespace. This registry follows the expert review process unless the "intended use" field is "common" or "placeholder", in which case registration follows the specification required process. A JMAP capability registration can have an intended use of "common", "placeholder", "limited", or "obsolete". IANA will list common-use registrations prominently and separately from those with other intended use values. The JMAP capability registration procedure is not a formal standards process but rather an administrative procedure intended to allow community comment and sanity checking without excessive time delay. A "placeholder" registration reserves part of the jmap URN namespace for another purpose but is typically not included in the "capabilities" property of the JMAP Session resource. 9.4.1. Preliminary Community Review Notice of a potential JMAP common-use registration SHOULD be sent to the JMAP mailing list <jmap@ietf.org> for review. This mailing list is appropriate to solicit community feedback on a proposed JMAP capability. Registrations that are not intended for common use MAY be sent to the list for review as well; doing so is entirely OPTIONAL, but is encouraged. The intent of the public posting to this list is to solicit comments and feedback on the choice of the capability name, the unambiguity of the specification document, and a review of any interoperability or security considerations. The submitter may submit a revised registration proposal or abandon the registration completely at any time. 9.4.2. Submit Request to IANA Registration requests can be sent to <iana@iana.org>. 9.4.3. Designated Expert Review For a limited-use registration, the primary concern of the designated expert (DE) is preventing name collisions and encouraging the submitter to document security and privacy considerations; a published specification is not required. For a common-use registration, the DE is expected to confirm that suitable documentation, as described in Section 4.6 of [RFC8126], is available. The DE should also verify that the capability does not conflict with work that is active or already published within the IETF. Before a period of 30 days has passed, the DE will either approve or deny the registration request and publish a notice of the decision to the JMAP WG mailing list or its successor, as well as inform IANA. A denial notice must be justified by an explanation, and, in the cases where it is possible, concrete suggestions on how the request can be modified so as to become acceptable should be provided. If the DE does not respond within 30 days, the registrant may request the IESG take action to process the request in a timely manner. 9.4.4. Change Procedures Once a JMAP capability has been published by the IANA, the change controller may request a change to its definition. The same procedure that would be appropriate for the original registration request is used to process a change request. JMAP capability registrations may not be deleted; capabilities that are no longer believed appropriate for use can be declared obsolete by a change to their "intended use" field; such capabilities will be clearly marked in the lists published by the IANA. Significant changes to a capability's definition should be requested only when there are serious omissions or errors in the published specification. When review is required, a change request may be denied if it renders entities that were valid under the previous definition invalid under the new definition. The owner of a JMAP capability may pass responsibility to another person or agency by informing the IANA; this can be done without discussion or review. The IESG may reassign responsibility for a JMAP capability. The most common case of this will be to enable changes to be made to capabilities where the author of the registration has died, moved out of contact, or is otherwise unable to make changes that are important to the community. 9.4.5. JMAP Capabilities Registry Template Capability name: (see capability property in Section 2) Specification document: Intended use: (one of common, limited, placeholder, or obsolete) Change controller: ("IETF" for Standards Track / BCP RFCs) Security and privacy considerations: 9.4.6. Initial Registration for JMAP Core Capability Name: "urn:ietf:params:jmap:core" Specification document: RFC 8620, Section 2 Intended use: common Change Controller: IETF Security and privacy considerations: RFC 8620, Section 8. 9.4.7. Registration for JMAP Error Placeholder in JMAP Capabilities Registry Capability Name: "urn:ietf:params:jmap:error:" Specification document: RFC 8620, Section 9.5 Intended use: placeholder Change Controller: IETF Security and privacy considerations: RFC 8620, Section 8. 9.5. Creation of "JMAP Error Codes" Registry IANA has created the "JMAP Error Codes" registry. JMAP error codes appear in the "type" member of a JSON problem details object (as described in Section 3.6.1), the "type" member in a JMAP error object (as described in Section 3.6.2), or the "type" member of a JMAP method-specific error object (such as SetError in Section 5.3). When used in a problem details object, the prefix "urn:ietf:params:jmap:error:" is always included; when used in JMAP objects, the prefix is always omitted. This registry follows the expert review process. Preliminary community review for this registry follows the same procedures as the "JMAP Capabilities" registry, but it is optional. The change procedures for this registry are the same as the change procedures for the "JMAP Capabilities" registry. 9.5.1. Expert Review The designated expert should review the following aspects of the registration: 1. Verify the error code does not conflict with existing names. 2. Verify the error code follows the syntax limitations (does not require URI encoding). 3. Encourage the submitter to follow the naming convention of previously registered errors. 4. Encourage the submitter to describe client behaviours that are recommended in response to the error code. These may distinguish the error code from other error codes. 5. Encourage the submitter to describe when the server should issue the error as opposed to some other error code. 6. Encourage the submitter to note any security considerations associated with the error, if any (e.g., an error code that might disclose existence of data the authenticated user does not have permission to know about). Steps 3-6 are meant to promote a higher-quality registry. However, the expert is encouraged to approve any registration that would not actively harm JMAP interoperability to make this a relatively lightweight process. 9.5.2. JMAP Error Codes Registry Template JMAP Error Code: Intended use: (one of "common", "limited", "obsolete") Change Controller: ("IETF" for Standards Track / BCP RFCs) Reference: (Optional. Only required if defined in an RFC.) Description: 9.5.3. Initial Contents for the JMAP Error Codes Registry o JMAP Error Code: accountNotFound Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 3.6.2 Description: The accountId does not correspond to a valid account. o JMAP Error Code: accountNotSupportedByMethod Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 3.6.2 Description: The accountId given corresponds to a valid account, but the account does not support this method or data type. o JMAP Error Code: accountReadOnly Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 3.6.2 Description: This method modifies state, but the account is read- only (as returned on the corresponding Account object in the JMAP Session resource). o JMAP Error Code: anchorNotFound Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 5.5 Description: An anchor argument was supplied, but it cannot be found in the results of the query. o JMAP Error Code: alreadyExists Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 5.4 Description: The server forbids duplicates, and the record already exists in the target account. An existingId property of type Id MUST be included on the SetError object with the id of the existing record. o JMAP Error Code: cannotCalculateChanges Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Sections 5.2 and 5.6 Description: The server cannot calculate the changes from the state string given by the client. o JMAP Error Code: forbidden Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Sections 3.6.2, 5.3, and 7.2.1 Description: The action would violate an ACL or other permissions policy. o JMAP Error Code: fromAccountNotFound Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Sections 5.4 and 6.3 Description: The fromAccountId does not correspond to a valid account. o JMAP Error Code: fromAccountNotSupportedByMethod Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 5.4 Description: The fromAccountId given corresponds to a valid account, but the account does not support this data type. o JMAP Error Code: invalidArguments Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 3.6.2 Description: One of the arguments is of the wrong type or otherwise invalid, or a required argument is missing. o JMAP Error Code: invalidPatch Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 5.3 Description: The PatchObject given to update the record was not a valid patch. o JMAP Error Code: invalidProperties Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 5.3 Description: The record given is invalid. o JMAP Error Code: notFound Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 5.3 Description: The id given cannot be found. o JMAP Error Code: notJSON Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 3.6.1 Description: The content type of the request was not application/ json, or the request did not parse as I-JSON. o JMAP Error Code: notRequest Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 3.6.1 Description: The request parsed as JSON but did not match the type signature of the Request object. o JMAP Error Code: overQuota Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 5.3 Description: The create would exceed a server-defined limit on the number or total size of objects of this type. o JMAP Error Code: rateLimit Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 5.3 Description: Too many objects of this type have been created recently, and a server-defined rate limit has been reached. It may work if tried again later. o JMAP Error Code: requestTooLarge Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Sections 5.1 and 5.3 Description: The total number of actions exceeds the maximum number the server is willing to process in a single method call. o JMAP Error Code: invalidResultReference Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 3.6.2 Description: The method used a result reference for one of its arguments, but this failed to resolve. o JMAP Error Code: serverFail Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 3.6.2 Description: An unexpected or unknown error occurred during the processing of the call. The method call made no changes to the server's state. o JMAP Error Code: serverPartialFail Intended Use: Limited Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 3.6.2 Description: Some, but not all, expected changes described by the method occurred. The client MUST resynchronise impacted data to determine the server state. Use of this error is strongly discouraged. o JMAP Error Code: serverUnavailable Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 3.6.2 Description: Some internal server resource was temporarily unavailable. Attempting the same operation later (perhaps after a backoff with a random factor) may succeed. o JMAP Error Code: singleton Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 5.3 Description: This is a singleton type, so you cannot create another one or destroy the existing one. o JMAP Error Code: stateMismatch Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 5.3 Description: An ifInState argument was supplied, and it does not match the current state. o JMAP Error Code: tooLarge Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 5.3 Description: The action would result in an object that exceeds a server-defined limit for the maximum size of a single object of this type. o JMAP Error Code: tooManyChanges Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 5.6 Description: There are more changes than the client's maxChanges argument. o JMAP Error Code: unknownCapability Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 3.6.1 Description: The client included a capability in the "using" property of the request that the server does not support. o JMAP Error Code: unknownMethod Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 3.6.2 Description: The server does not recognise this method name. o JMAP Error Code: unsupportedFilter Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 5.5 Description: The filter is syntactically valid, but the server cannot process it. o JMAP Error Code: unsupportedSort Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 5.5 Description: The sort is syntactically valid but includes a property the server does not support sorting on or a collation method it does not recognise. o JMAP Error Code: willDestroy Intended Use: Common Change Controller: IETF Reference: RFC 8620, Section 5.3 Description: The client requested an object be both updated and destroyed in the same /set request, and the server has decided to therefore ignore the update. 10. References 10.1. Normative References [EventSource] Hickson, I., "Server-Sent Events", World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC-eventsource-20150203, February 2015, <https://www.w3.org/TR/eventsource/>. [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. [RFC2782] Gulbrandsen, A., Vixie, P., and L. Esibov, "A DNS RR for specifying the location of services (DNS SRV)", RFC 2782, DOI 10.17487/RFC2782, February 2000, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2782>. [RFC2818] Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, DOI 10.17487/RFC2818, May 2000, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2818>. [RFC3339] Klyne, G. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, DOI 10.17487/RFC3339, July 2002, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3339>. [RFC3553] Mealling, M., Masinter, L., Hardie, T., and G. Klyne, "An IETF URN Sub-namespace for Registered Protocol Parameters", BCP 73, RFC 3553, DOI 10.17487/RFC3553, June 2003, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3553>. [RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, DOI 10.17487/RFC3629, November 2003, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3629>. [RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings", RFC 4648, DOI 10.17487/RFC4648, October 2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4648>. [RFC4790] Newman, C., Duerst, M., and A. Gulbrandsen, "Internet Application Protocol Collation Registry", RFC 4790, DOI 10.17487/RFC4790, March 2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4790>. [RFC5051] Crispin, M., "i;unicode-casemap - Simple Unicode Collation Algorithm", RFC 5051, DOI 10.17487/RFC5051, October 2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5051>. [RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>. [RFC5280] Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S., Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, DOI 10.17487/RFC5280, May 2008, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5280>. [RFC5322] Resnick, P., Ed., "Internet Message Format", RFC 5322, DOI 10.17487/RFC5322, October 2008, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5322>. [RFC6186] Daboo, C., "Use of SRV Records for Locating Email Submission/Access Services", RFC 6186, DOI 10.17487/RFC6186, March 2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6186>. [RFC6335] Cotton, M., Eggert, L., Touch, J., Westerlund, M., and S. Cheshire, "Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Procedures for the Management of the Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry", BCP 165, RFC 6335, DOI 10.17487/RFC6335, August 2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6335>. [RFC6570] Gregorio, J., Fielding, R., Hadley, M., Nottingham, M., and D. Orchard, "URI Template", RFC 6570, DOI 10.17487/RFC6570, March 2012, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6570>. [RFC6749] Hardt, D., Ed., "The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework", RFC 6749, DOI 10.17487/RFC6749, October 2012, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6749>. [RFC6764] Daboo, C., "Locating Services for Calendaring Extensions to WebDAV (CalDAV) and vCard Extensions to WebDAV (CardDAV)", RFC 6764, DOI 10.17487/RFC6764, February 2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6764>. [RFC6838] Freed, N., Klensin, J., and T. Hansen, "Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures", BCP 13, RFC 6838, DOI 10.17487/RFC6838, January 2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6838>. [RFC6901] Bryan, P., Ed., Zyp, K., and M. Nottingham, Ed., "JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Pointer", RFC 6901, DOI 10.17487/RFC6901, April 2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6901>. [RFC7230] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing", RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>. [RFC7231] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content", RFC 7231, DOI 10.17487/RFC7231, June 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7231>. [RFC7493] Bray, T., Ed., "The I-JSON Message Format", RFC 7493, DOI 10.17487/RFC7493, March 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7493>. [RFC7525] Sheffer, Y., Holz, R., and P. Saint-Andre, "Recommendations for Secure Use of Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS)", BCP 195, RFC 7525, DOI 10.17487/RFC7525, May 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7525>. [RFC7617] Reschke, J., "The 'Basic' HTTP Authentication Scheme", RFC 7617, DOI 10.17487/RFC7617, September 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7617>. [RFC7807] Nottingham, M. and E. Wilde, "Problem Details for HTTP APIs", RFC 7807, DOI 10.17487/RFC7807, March 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7807>. [RFC8030] Thomson, M., Damaggio, E., and B. Raymor, Ed., "Generic Event Delivery Using HTTP Push", RFC 8030, DOI 10.17487/RFC8030, December 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8030>. [RFC8126] Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>. [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>. [RFC8259] Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data Interchange Format", STD 90, RFC 8259, DOI 10.17487/RFC8259, December 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8259>. [RFC8264] Saint-Andre, P. and M. Blanchet, "PRECIS Framework: Preparation, Enforcement, and Comparison of Internationalized Strings in Application Protocols", RFC 8264, DOI 10.17487/RFC8264, October 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8264>. [RFC8291] Thomson, M., "Message Encryption for Web Push", RFC 8291, DOI 10.17487/RFC8291, November 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8291>. [RFC8446] Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>. [RFC8615] Nottingham, M., "Well-Known Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs)", RFC 8615, DOI 10.17487/RFC8615, May 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8615>. 10.2. Informative References [RFC8246] McManus, P., "HTTP Immutable Responses", RFC 8246, DOI 10.17487/RFC8246, September 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8246>. Authors' Addresses Neil Jenkins Fastmail PO Box 234, Collins St. West Melbourne, VIC 8007 Australia Email: neilj@fastmailteam.com URI: https://www.fastmail.com Chris Newman Oracle 440 E. Huntington Dr., Suite 400 Arcadia, CA 91006 United States of America Email: chris.newman@oracle.com